||The endogenous synthesis of cholesterol in hepatocyte nodules, induced in male Wistar rats, by a single dose of the hepatocarcinogen diethylnitrosamine followed by a selection procedure, was investigated and was compared with that in surrounding and control tissue. In addition, the activity of enzymes related to carbohydrate metabolism (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphatase and pyruvate kinase), was measured. Hepatocyte nodules showed a striking increase in their capacity for synthesizing cholesterol, in comparison to surrounding and control tissues, and an enhancement in the activity of the pentose phosphate pathway, as indicated by increased activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, and a concomitant decrease of glucose-6-phosphatase. The stimulation of cholesterol synthesis and of the pentose phosphate pathway was associated with increased incorporation of labelled thymidine into DNA. These data indicate that, among other metabolic disturbances, enhancement of cholesterol synthesis and of the pentose phosphate pathway, is accompanied by an increased proliferative capacity of hepatocyte nodules.