||VGF or VGF nerve growth factor inducible is a protein that has been found to play a role in regulating energy homeostasis and metabolism. From VGF precursor derive two neuroendocrine regulatory peptides NERP-1 and NERP-2 that, intracerebroventricular (icv) injected, modulate the antidiuretic hormone (ADH) release. Thus, we investigated possible modulations of the NERPs and other VGF peptides (namely VGF C-terminus, TLQP and PGH) in the hypothalamic-pituitary-axis, adrenal gland and plasma upon osmotic stimuli. The latter tissues were studied using water deprived (WD), salt loaded (SL), rehydrated after salt cargo and control rats by immunohistochemistry and immunoenzymatic assays. The high-performance liquid chromatography ensured the endogenous presence of the two NERPs in both plasma and hypothalamus. Upon dehydration, NERP-1 levels increased in the median eminence (M.E.) only, while using SL rats, the values of both NERPs increased in the M.E. and even in the hypothalamus. Conversely, in the blood of WD and SL rats, the levels of NERP-1 and NERP-2 decreased while, using pituitary from both rat groups, levels of NERP-2 increased and those of NERP-1 decreased. Reduction in the VGF C-terminus peptide levels was observed exclusively in the M.E. (using WD rats) and pituitary (using WD and SL rats), while PGH and TLQP peptide levels never changed in all tissues tested. By immunohistochemistry, the VGF peptides studied (apart from the TLQP peptides) were present in the hypothalamic and pituitary ADH containing neurons of the control rats, while using WD and SL rats, an immunostaining increase was selectively revealed for VGF C-terminus peptides in the hypothalamic neurons that produce ADH. All VGF changes found using SL rats disappeared after only 1 h of rehydration. In conclusion, we hypothesize that NERPs may be involved in both autocrine and endocrine mechanisms important for the fluid balance.