||Adenosine A2A receptor antagonists have been proposed as an effective therapy in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. In the present study, we compared the modifications on striatal glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67), enkephalin, and dynorphin mRNA levels produced by a chronic-intermittent administration of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-alanine (L-dopa) (6 mg/kg) with those produced by the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist SCH 58261 (5 mg/kg) plus L-dopa (3 mg/kg) in unilaterally 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats. As previously reported, L-dopa (6 mg/kg) and SCH 58261 (5 mg/kg) plus L-dopa (3 mg/kg) produced the same degree of turning behavior after the first administration. However, while L-dopa (6 mg/kg) induced a sensitized turning behavior response during the course of the treatment, which indicated a dyskinetic potential, SCH 58261 (5 mg/kg) plus L-dopa (3 mg/kg) produced a stable turning behavior response, which was predictive of absence of dyskinetic side effects. Unilateral 6-OHDA lesion produced an elevation in striatal GAD67 and enkephalin mRNA levels and to a decrease in dynorphin mRNA levels. Chronic-intermittent L-dopa (6 mg/kg) treatment increased the striatal levels of GAD67, dynorphin, and enkephalin mRNA in the lesioned side as compared to the vehicle treatment. Chronic-intermittent SCH 58261 (5 mg/kg) plus L-dopa (3 mg/kg) as well as L-dopa (3 mg/kg) or SCH 58261 (5 mg/kg) alone did not produce any significant modification in GAD67, dynorphin, or enkephalin mRNA levels in the lesioned striatum as compared to the striatum of vehicle-treated rats. The results show that combined SCH 58261 plus L-dopa did not produce long-term changes in markers of striatal efferent neurons activity and suggest that the lack of modifications in GAD67 and dynorphin mRNA after SCH 58261 plus L-dopa might correlate with the lack of turning behavior sensitization which predicts drug dyskinetic potential.