IA/0108 - URBAN MICRO-CLIMATOLOGY
Academic Year 2021/2022
Free text for the University
SIMONE FERRARI (Tit.)
- Teaching style
- Lingua Insegnamento
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The Course supplies the necessary competencies for the understanding of the fundamental principles of the Micro-climatology of Urban Environment and the ability to understand the phenomenology of the interaction between the air flows and the built environment; in particular, the students will learn to design employing the shape of buildings and their position to optimize the comfort, air quality and energy efficiency of the built environment.
The main aims of the course are:
• to stimulate the deepening of the knowledge about Micro-climatology of Urban Environment peculiar of the design and planning applications of Architecture;
• to induce the knowledge and the proper interpretation of the main phenomena of Micro-climatology of Urban Environment involved in Architecture;
• to supply the students with a methodology of interpretation and computation concerning the modelling of flows in urban environment and of their interaction with buildings.
The expected learning outcomes are:
• the capability to understanding the phenomenology of flows in urban environment and of their interaction with buildings;
• capability to implement, in the field of building and urbanistic design, the acquired knowledge in the practice of modelling and analysis of the flow-building interaction in terms of stress, heat exchange and environmental impact of pollutants released in the atmosphere;
• the ability to identify and use data to formulate responses to well-defined concrete and abstract problems;
• the ability to communicate about the above described phenomena with the peers, supervisors and clients of studies and simulations, and with people who develop and make use of simulation models in the urban environment;
• the skill to undertake further studies with some autonomy on particular phenomenological aspects;
• the capability to work in a group.
The student, before facing the contents of the Course of Micro-climatology of Urban Environment, has to be sure to have a good knowledge of Mathematics and Physics. In particular, in order to properly understand the topics of the Course, it is essential to know the concept of function, derivative and integral, the physical quantities (length, time, velocity, acceleration, mass, force, energy, power) and their unit; it is important to know the basics of Mechanics.
• Principles of fluid dynamics: mass conservation, pressure, generalized Bernoulli’s theorem, streamlines, fundamentals of similarity theory, laminar and turbulent regimes, exercises (5h frontal lect. + 1h exer.).
• Principles of fluid dynamics in atmospheric flows: overview of micro-meteorology, shape and evolution of Atmospheric Boundary Layer (6h frontal lect.).
• Urban ventilation: shape and evolution of Urban Boundary Layer, modification induced by the artificial canopy, urban heat island, interaction between the urban heat island and the local flows, urban canyon, ventilation in urban canyons, comfort outside buildings, structural stresses, basics of experimental modelling techniques, exercises (7h frontal lect. + 2h exer. + 1h seminar).
• Fundamentals of pollutant dispersion in atmosphere: urban air quality, jets and plumes, typology of sources, pollutant dispersion in urban canyons, design of sources, basics of experimental modelling, exercises (4h frontal lect. + 1h exer. + 1h seminar).
• Fundamentals of inner building ventilation: passive cooling, inside building comfort, effect of different openings, basics of experimental modelling, exercises (4h frontal lect. + 1h exer.).
• Workshop: numerical modelling of urban flows: fluid-structure interaction and pollutant dispersion (8h Lab.).
The lectures are arranged in order to stimulate the active participation of the students to the achievement of the conclusions, also through the recall of what have been already studied in past courses or in the present course. Moreover, whether made possible by the epidemic situation, exercises in the lecture room and in workshop activities are carried out during the course. In particular, during the exercises in the lecture room the students are divided in small groups; exercises concern the resolution of practical problems of Micro-climatology of Urban Environment of interest to the architect. In the workshop, a software of three-dimensional microclimate modelling will be employed for the optimization of size and shape of a building from the microclimatology point of view.
In particular, the hours of the course are divided in this way:
• frontal lectures: 25 h;
• seminars: 2 h;
• numerical exercises in the lecture room: 5 h;
• workshop: 8 h.
Classes, if made possible by the epidemic situation, will be mostly in presence, integrated and augmented with online strategies, with the target to grant the fruition in an innovative and inclusive way.
Verification of learning
The conclusive test is an oral test with three queries. The aim of the test is the evaluation of the acquired knowledge, particularly regarding the understanding of the design applications of the knowledge, and of the ability to apply it to an “open” practical case, that is a case where non every variable is fixed and the decisional choices are taken by the student (who has to demonstrate the ability to discuss and motivate them).
To obtain a mark between 18/30 and 21/30, the student must demonstrate a sufficient knowledge of the basic subjects and be able at least to properly sketch out and solve a simple problem among the ones explained during the class.
To obtain a mark between 22/30 and 24/30, the student must demonstrate a fair knowledge of all the subjects discussed during the test and be able to solve a similar problem to the ones explained during the class.
To obtain a mark between 25/30 and 27/30, the student must demonstrate a good knowledge of all the subjects discussed during the test and of their practical applications, in addition to be able to solve a problem not explained during the class.
To obtain a mark between 28/30 and 30/30 with honors, the student must demonstrate an excellent knowledge of all the subjects discussed during the test, with the ability to autonomously identify their practical applications, and be able to solve autonomously and brilliantly a problem not explained during the class.
• Urban climates, T. R. Oke, G. Mills, A. Christen, J. A. Voogt, Cambridge University Press.
• Energy and climate in the urban built environment, M. Santamouris, Routledge.
• Y.Tamura e R.Yoshie, Advanced Environmental Wind Engineering, Springer.
• G.Querzoli, Dispense di Idraulica, downloadable from: http://pcque.unica.it/dispense/IdraulicaVO.PDF
• Y.A.Cengel and J.M.Cimbala, Meccanica dei Fluidi, McGraw-Hill.
The slides projected during the lessons, link to useful websites, files employed during the exercitations and other reference materials are available on the professor’s website at https://www.unica.it/unica/page/it/simoneferrari_MAT_corsi_di_climatologia_urbana_e_ventilazione_degli_edifici_e_di_microclimatica_degli_ambienti_urbani