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Informazioni aggiuntive

Course Curriculum CFU Length(h)
[80/72]  ARCHITECTURE [72/20 - Ord. 2012]  RESTORATION 11 137.5


The course aims to provide students, also through a case study, the fundamentals of chemical, physical and mineralogical-petrographic analysis methods for the characterization of natural and artificial stone materials. Will also provide both the basics of instruments used for analysis and mineralogical-petrographical diagnostics, and the basic information of the in situ non-destructive techniques, utilised to better define the internal structure of masonries and other architectural artifacts. Finally we will discuss about products and materials (i.e. consolidants, adhesives and protectives) used in the conservation field, as well as monitoring systems of the alteration phenomena over time and the effectiveness of the treatments. Promotion of cultural heritage, including digital visualization techniques will also provided.


Preparatory courses already indicated in the degree course


Module 1 - Physical Diagnostics of Buildings
Fundamentals of micro-geophysics and non-destructive testing.
Physical properties of rocks and materials:
-Electrical methods: electrical properties of materials: resistivity, permittivity, chargeability.
Ohm law. Instruments: Georesistivimeter. Self-Potential and Induced Polarization
methods. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) (8 hours)
-Georadar: Physical principles: propagation, attenuation and reflection of electromagnetic waves. Penetration and resolution; data processing, visualisation and interpretation. Instruments. Case History (8 hours)
-Ultra shallow seismics: Propagation of seismic waves. Seismic Tomography. Sensors for wall surfaces, Sensors and energization for painted surfaces. Methods of interpretation of the acquired data. Ultrasounds. Sonic and seismic tomography. Quality factor (8 hours).
-Thermography: Physical principles. Spectral emissivity. Infrared and thermal infrared. Lock-in thermography; pulse video-termography; dynamic thermal tomography (8 hours)
-Ground-based Radar Interferometry. Fieldwork activities, spectral analysis, assessment of a building natural frequency. Differential SAR Interferometry: examples (5 hours).
-Methods for visualization and monitoring of digital data (8 hours)
-Practical exercises (5 hours).

Module 2 - Materials and Techniques for restoration in the Architecture.
Notes on the main weathering and degradation forms induced by natural or anthropogenic agents.
Relationships between degradation, microstructure, composition and physical characteristics of the materials aiming at a correct choice of the intervention practices.
Inorganic, organic and hybrids materials (the more used in restoration field): classification, functional and performance characteristics.
New materials also nanostructurated.
Main conservation techniques: pre-consolidation, cleaning, consolidation and protection.
Simulated and accelerated degradation techniques: limitations and utility.
Methods for the analysis of the microstructural modifications induced by conservative treatment; verify their effectiveness and stability in the short and long term with different instrumental techniques.
Standards and safety data sheets. Application of methods to a Case Study.

Module 3 - Minero–petrographic Applications in Architecture
Mineralogy .
Aims and methods of modern mineralogy. The Mineralogy in the field of Material Science. Definition of mineral and crystal, amorphous state and crystalline state (2 hours).
Morphological crystallography. The operators of symmetry. Crystalline systems and classes of symmetry (1 hour).
Crystalchemistry of minerals: chemical bonds and crystal structure. Isomorphism. Polymorphism (1 hour).
Physical properties of minerals: colour, hardness, density, etc. (1 hour).
Optical properties (1 hour).
Identification of a mineral from its physical properties (1 hour).
Systematic mineralogy, classification of minerals (2 hours)
Optical microscopy in transmitted and reflected light (4 hours).
Atomic physics and chemistry. Structural and elemental analysis. Principles of spectral analysis. Atomic emission spectroscopy (AES) and absorption (AAS), mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma source (ICP-MS), mass spectrometry with inductive plasma source sampler with laser ablation (LA-ICP-MS). X-ray diffraction X-ray spectrometry Electron microscopy (SEM-TEM), electronic microanalysis (EPMA). Elements of nuclear analytical techniques (IMMA-IBA, PIXE-PIGE-RBS) (13 hours).
Authentication and localization of the origin of materials (2 hours).
Practical exercises (9 hours).

Teaching Methods

The preparation of a final presentation by each student and concerning an specifically assigned case study is a crucial part of the teaching strategy of the course. The presentation (and the associated preparatory work) is designed to assess the understanding about the different aspects of investigation, treatment and analysis techniques for the chemical, minero-petrografical and physical characterization of artefacts, monuments and materials.
The course includes:
1) lectures and exercises with use of instruments;
2) fieldwork and practical activities connected with the case study;
3) data processing at the computational lab.

The course consists of 137.5 hours, subdivided in:
Lectures 77.5 hours
Case study 30 hours
Lab activities 30 hours

Verification of learning

The exam will consist of an oral presentation (and, possibly, a written report) of the results inferred from the measurements acquired during the case study. The student work will be evaluated based on the quality/significance of the data analysis, quality of presentation, capacity to analyse and summarize the results.
In order to pass the exam (hence, to get a grade higher than 18/30), the student needs to show a sufficient understanding of the arguments in each module. In particular, s/he will need to demonstrate to be able to decide when/where to use a specific diagnostic technique instead of another.
To get 30/30 cum laude (top-marks), the student must show a complete knowledge of al topics discussed during the course.
The total grade will be calculated as the weighted average of the grade for the individual modules.


-Jeremy P. Ingham 2011. Geomaterials under the microscope. Manson Publishing 126p.
-Winkler E.M. , 1994. Stones: properties, durability in Man’s environment. Springer-Verlag, Berlino, 313p.
-E. P. Bertin 1970.Principles and practice of X-Ray spectrometric analysis

-Masini N., Soldovieri F. (Eds), Sensing the Past. From artifact to historical site. Springer International Publishing, 2017.
-Reynolds, J. M., An introduction to applied and environmental geophysics. John Wiley & Sons, 2011.

-G. G. Amoroso. Trattato di Scienza della Conservazione dei Monumenti. Ed. Alinea, Firenze, 2002, pg. 432
-Luca Zevi. Manuale del restauro architettonico. Ed Mancosu, 2001
-C.V. Horie. Materials for Conservation. Ed. Butterworths, 1987

More Information

The textbooks might be integrated by slides of the lectures, links to websites, material from other case studies.

Questionnaire and social

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