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Course Curriculum CFU Length(h)
[80/71]  ARCHITECTURAL SCIENCE [71/00 - Ord. 2013]  PERCORSO COMUNE 7 87.5


This course is divided into two parts. The first part studies chemical equilibria and mechanisms governing the chemical transformations in terms of atomic and molecular structure. The systematic analysis of chemical reactivity is restricted to a few specific classes of chemical compounds and transformations of general interest and technological potential. Fundamental notions regarding the structure of matter and the basic principles governing the physico-chemical transformation processes (phase transitions, chemical reactions, etc.) are required.
The second part studies the most fundamental issues concerning Materials Science, in particular for building materials. Ceramics, metals and natural materials are considered focusing on their microstructural and macrostructural properties. The relationships between structure, processing and properties of materials will be illustrated with examples of both idealized and technological materials. Numerical exercises illustrate the main points of the lesson course.
Knowledge and understanding. At the end of this course, the student will achieve a sufficient knowledge of chemistry and materials science and of aspects which control chemical and physical phenomena of different materials.
Applying knowledge and understanding. The student will develop skills in the use of instruments relating to chemistry and materials science, which will allow him to understand the relation between structure and properties.
Making judgements. The student will develop self-evaluation capacity regarding chemistry and engineering materials, models and limits of knowledge.
Communication skills. Students will acquire basic and essential knowledge useful for his professional education for future practice as architects. chemistry and materials science studies will allow to make appropriate design choices.


knowledge acquired from studying Maths and Physics (high school level)


Part A- Chemistry

1. Introduction
Atomic theory. Molecular formulae and weights. Nomenclature.
Atomic structure and periodic properties of elements
Elementary particles. Atomic structure. Bohr atom. Quantum theory. Wave mechanics. Schroedinger equation. Quantum numbers. Orbitals. Hydrogen atom. Polyelectronic atoms. Aufbau principle. Periodic table of elements. Ionization, affinity and atomic size.
Chemical bond theory. Electronic structure of hydrogen molecular ion and molecule. Molecular orbitals. Hybrid orbitals. Chemical bonds. Covalent bonds. Electronic delocalization. Molecular orbitals energy diagrams. Chemical bond, molecular structure and chemical reactivity. Covalent and ionic solids. Metals and energy bands. (10 hours)

Acidic oxides, basic oxide, Acids and basis. Reactions.
Oxidation number. Redox. Dismutation reaction. Stoichiometric problems. (7 hours)

Gases, liquids and solids
Gases. Boyle, Charles and Gay-Lussac laws. Absolute temperature. Ideal gases. Dalton law. Real gases. Gas kinetic theory. Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution law. Solids. Bravais lattices. Van’t Hoff equation (7 hours)

5. Phase equilibria
Phase transitions. Liquid-vapour, liquid-solid and solid-vapour equilibria. Hydrolysis. (7 hours)

6. Solubility product. Kinetics. Activation energy. Arrhenius equation. Daniel cell. Standard hydrogen electrode. Nerst Equation. Concentration cell. Electrolysis. Faraday's law. (6.5 hours)

Part B - Engineering Materials

Types of materials. Structure-Property-Processing relationship.

Atomic structure.
The structure of the atom. Atomic bonding. Binding energy and interatomic spacing.

Crystalline solids. Crystals Systems. Imperfections in solids. Diffusion.
Steady state diffusion (Fick’s first law), non steady state diffusion (Fick’s second law). Factors that influence diffusion.
Dislocations and Strengthening Mechanism.
Dislocations and elastic deformation. Plastic deformation of polycrystalline materials. Mechanism of strengthening in metals.
Mechanical Properties of metals.
Stress-strain Behaviour. Tensile properties. Compressive, shear and torsion deformation. Hardness and hardness tests. (10 hours)

Phase Diagrams.
Equilibrium Phase diagrams. The Gibbs phase rules. Binary isomorphous systems. The lever rule. Nonequilibrium solidification. Binary eutectic systems. Three phases reactions in binary phase diagram: eutectic, peritectic, monotectic, eutectoid, peritectoid.

Natural materials.
Rock. Formation process and final properties. Wooden materials. Earth based baterials. (5 hours)

Lime. Hydraulic lime. Cement and concrete. Raw materials. Fabrication methods. Hydration of binders. Final structure and relative pèroperties. Concrete aggregate, properties. Mix-design. Final properties. (15 hours)

Traditional ceramcis.
Clays (O-T and T-O-T systems). Ceramic structures. Crystalline ceramics. Imperfections in ceramics. Mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. Processing of ceramics. Applications of ceramics. Glasses. (10 hours)

Polymers applications and processing. Polymerization. Polymer crystallinity. Mechanical and thermomechanical properties. Stress-strain behaviour. Deformation of semicrystalline polymers. Thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers. Fracture. (3 hours)

Particle reinforced composites. Dispersion strengthened composites. Fiber-reinforced composites. Polymer matrix composites. Metal matrix composites. Ceramic matrix composites. Composites manufacturing. (2 hours)

Durability of materials.
Historical and modern materials durability. (10 hours)

Teaching Methods

First part: 37.5 hours (30 lectures, 7.5 pratical)
Second part: 50 hours (40 lectures, 10 pratical).
The teacher is available for individual class during office hours.

Verification of learning

The evaluation will be performed in two different steps: chemistry and materials science.
Chemistry: a written part at the end of the course (or two intermediate tests during the course) and oral part.

Materials science: a written part at the end of the course (or two intermediate tests during the course) and oral part.

Final evaluation will take into account the results obtained by first and second part.

Part A- Chemistry

Written part will highlight the acquired knowledge by students on:
- the matter, its structure, its transformations and the principles which govern them;
- the elements and their chemical properties;
- the chemical bond, the secondary interactions and the relationship between the structure of a substance and its properties;
- chemical equilibrium;
- the principles of electrochemistry.

Oral part will allow to confirm or verify the knowledge level.

Part B- Engineering Materials

Written part will highlight the acquired knowledge by students on:
- materials structure;
- materials properties;
- formation process of materials;
- applications;
- perspective and future of materials science.

Oral part will allow to confirm or verify the knowledge level.


Part A

M. Schiavello, L. Palmisano. Fondamenti di Chimica, Edises
R. Chang, K. Goldsby. Fondamenti di Chimica Generale. Mc Graw Hill

Part B

U. Sanna,G.Pia; I materiali dell'edilizia storica e moderna. Aracne

W.F. Smith, J. Hashemi. Scienza e tecnologia dei materiali. Mc Graw Hill

Appunti dalle lezioni tenute dal prof. Vittorio Gottardi: I Ceramici, I Vetri, Le Materie Plastiche
Tecnologia dei materiali: a cura del prof. P. Pedeferri - Città Studi Edizioni

L. Bertolini, MATERIALI DA COSTRUZIONE, Vol. I - Struttura, Proprietà e Tecnologie di Produzione, Ed. CittàSTUDI

L. Bertolini, MATERIALI DA COSTRUZIONE, Vol. II - Degrado, prevenzione diagnosi, Ed. CittàSTUDI

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