80/034 - HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 1
Academic Year 2021/2022
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MARCO CADINU (Tit.)
- Teaching style
- Lingua Insegnamento
|[80/71] ARCHITECTURAL SCIENCE||[71/00 - Ord. 2017] PERCORSO COMUNE||8||80|
General objectives: The course considers the history of architecture from antiquity to the sixteenth century in European and the Mediterranean countries, through the analysis of the main cultural phases and style. The study of the main architectures is conducted with particular attention to the compositional aspects of the project and its significance. The architects cultural and artistic personalities shall be an important topic from the late middle age to Renaissance.
The ancient and classical world is studied as an introductory module. A more detailed analysis is dedicated to the history of medieval and Renaissance architecture.
The analysis of the architectures is carried out also through the study of cultural traits and historical contexts. It takes place with the aid of pictures, plans and sections, in a context of comparisons between architecture and design models; The analysis is complemented by the study of the constructive solutions of cultural influences between geographical areas and commissions. We shall consider often the urban scenario in which the architectures are located.
IMPORTANT: The student must have prior knowledge of the basic principles of art history and the history of Italian and European architecture. Manuals routinely adopted in the high schools are considered a perfect introduction to our programs.
1) INTRODUCTORY MODULE (9 hours)
• Architecture of the origins
From the tholos to trilithon: models and methods of construction.
Egyptian architecture. Temples and Pyramids
The ancient Mediterranean: Mycenae, Creta.
Architecture nuragica: the main models and monumental construction
2) CLASSIC ARCHITECTURE (12 hours)
• Greek Architecture
Architecture, patterns, orders. The temple. The theater.
• Roman Architecture
The territory, the city, the house. Infrastructure (roads, bridges, dams, ports)
New models for new architectures. The Temples. Theaters, amphitheatres, circuses. Triumphal Arches. Basilicas. Baths.
Building among Romans. Walls and domes
3) FROM LATE ANTIQUITY TO ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE (21 hours)
• Early Christian and Byzantine architecture.
Ravenna, Rome, Constantinople.
Basilicas. Baptisteries. The Byzantine domes
• Islamic Architecture
The territory, the city, the house. Mosques.
• Romanesque architecture in Europe
Carolingian area. The Romanesque in European countries (Spain, France, England, Germany)
Central and Northern Italy.
The southern Italian. Norman architecture in Sicily. Romanesque architecture in Sardinia
4) ARCHITECTURE IN 12th 13th 14th CENTURIES (15 hours)
• Gothic architecture
Ile de France. The evolution of the Central European Gothic
The Gothic in England, Spain and Italy.
Cistercian architecture in Europe. The architecture of the mendicant orders
• The Italian and European cities between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries
Structure of the Italian and European medieval town. The public spaces and squares
The new towns in Europe. The foundation of the French Bastides. The Walled Terre (Terrenove) in Tuscany.
The medieval towns of Sardinia. The Case of Cagliari.
• Gothic civil architecture
The Town Hall in Italian municipalities.
Castles of Frederick II
5) FROM THE RENAISSANCE TO MANNERISM (18 hours)
The masters of the Florentine Renaissance. Brunelleschi and Leon Battista Alberti.
Mannerism. Architecture of the Sixteenth century in Italy.
Michelangelo. Giulio Romano. Bramante. Raphael. Palladio. Sansovino.
The architecture of the Jesuits.
- EXERCISES (5 hours)
TOTAL: 80 hours
Number of total hours: 80
Lectures: 72; Tutorials: 5; Seminars: 3.
The lectures will be held in the classroom, dedicated to specific topics listed in the program and in the "Attachments" to the program given over to "Additional Information".
On the occasion of the lessons each architecture will be analyzed with reference to the bibliography. The study of the works and historical periods will be done with the help of graphic design and original images.
During the course of the exercises in the classroom will be devoted to in-depth study of the works and their design. The professor and his assistants will indicate the methods and objectives to be achieved in the description and representation of the architecture.
There will be seminars devoted to regional issues. These include the Romanesque and Gothic in Sardinia, Nuragic architecture, the city of Cagliari in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern Age; you will visit together some significant architecture in Cagliari or placed nearby.
Verification of learning
The student will be assessed through a personal interview based on the general program of the course. Candidates must demonstrate the ability to describe and comment on the architecture and the cultural phases covered by the program of the course. Learning takes place through the study of the listed texts and some recommended critically processed and integrated through personal cultural experiences (see bibliography recommended), and the assiduous attendance of lectures and tutorials.
In bold in the Appendices to the Program are set out architectures whose knowledge must be particularly thorough (see "Additional Information").
The architecture will be described in their principles of composition and construction; Schematic freehand drawings of plans, elevations and sections, may be required in order to clarify the main characters and geometric formal works, which still must be properly placed in their temporal and geographic context, with reference to their aesthetic, stylistic and cultural.
Are appropriate comparisons and comparison between several stylistic phases and planning models, supporting the study of the individual architectures with readings and reflections that make it possible to identify critical links and joints, such as:
architectures with a central plan of antiquity, the Middle Ages and the Renaissance;
the ancient basilicas and their reinterpretation of early Christian or Islamic architecture;
plants Romanesque and Gothic ecclesiastical architecture;
the structure of the medieval city, between the classical age and the Renaissance;
models and cultural references of the leading masters of the Italian Renaissance.
In the study of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance are particularly important figures of the main architects of their artistic personality and the environment of their training; in a broader perspective, as described in the Annexes to the program, should be studied with care:
Arnolfo di Cambio,
Leon Battista Alberti,
Jacopo Tatti, called Sansovino
Jacopo Barozzi said Vignola.
The study of the basic texts for the course (listed in the bibliography, SUBJECT ONLY TO CHAPTERS OF COURSE) must necessarily be accompanied by at least two of the study texts from those indicated.
Further reading on specific topics can be found in the bibliography. Different texts will have to be agreed with the teacher.
Will be evaluated at the end of the assignment of the final grade:
1 knowledge of the cultural and historical periods covered by the program;
2 knowledge of compositional elements, construction and style of the architecture in the program (essential ones shown in bold in the list in the Program Attachments);
3 the ability to place them in the history and analyze the main cultural phases and style;
4 the ability to relate models and architectures belonging to different historical periods;
5 the ability to assessment and graphic description of the characters of a geometric and volumetric architecture; the description of its effect and spatial perception.
6 correctness expressive and descriptive ability, knowledge of specific terminology and architectural appropriateness of language.
The student who receive a vote 18/30 must demonstrate to have a basic knowlwdge of items 1,2,3,4,6.
The student who receive e vote of 30/30 must demonstrate to have a exellent knowlwdge of items 1,2,3,4,5,6.
The study of the course deals with integrating the content of the lessons with three basic books REQUIRED.
The student must choose une more book among the list of the 6 FURTHER TEXTS OF DEEPENING.
The three (3) books will be studied LIMITED CHAPTERS AND THE PARTIES INVOLVED IN THE COURSE.
THE THREE TEXTS BASIC COURSE REQUIRED ARE:
1 - AA.VV., Lineamenti di storia dell’architettura, Sovera, Roma 1994
2 - David Watkin, Storia dell’architettura occidentale, Bologna (ENGLISH version: A History of Western Architecture).
3 - Peter Murray, Architettura del Rinascimento italiano, Laterza, Milano 2006. (ENGLISH version: The Architecture of the Italian Renaissance)
FURTHER TEXTS OF DEEPENING (choose one):
1 - E. Lippolis, M. Livadiotti, G. Rocco, Architettura greca. Storia e monumenti del mondo della pólis dalle origini al V secolo, Milano-Torino 2007
or: : Bozzoni, Franchetti, Ortolani, Viscogliosi, L’architettura del mondo antico, Laterza, Roma-Bari 2009
2 - R. Bonelli, C. Bozzoni, V. Franchetti Pardo, Storia dell'Architettura Medievale, Bari 1997
3 - M. Tafuri, Ricerca del rinascimento. Principi, città, architetti, Torino 1992
4 - Enrico Guidoni, L’arte di progettare le città. Italia e Mediterraneo tra medioevo e settecento, Kappa, Roma 1992
5 - Marco Cadinu, Cagliari. Forma e progetto della città storica, Cuec, Cagliari 2009.
6 - Carlo Tosco, L'architettura medievale in Italia. 600-1200, Il Mulino, Bologna 2016
The following bibliography is indicated in order to build an optional framework of guidance on the main arguments:
• Nikolaus Pevsner, J. Fleming, H. Honour, Dizionario di architettura, Einaudi, Torino 1981
• Carlo Perogalli, Architettura italiana. Dall’antichità al liberty, Martello, Milano 1994
• W. Muller, G. Vogel, Atlante di Architettura, Storia dell’architettura dalle origini all’età contemporanea, Hoepli, Milano 1991
• Enrico Guidoni, Architettura primitiva, Electa, Milano 1975 (ed. 2000)
• Roland Martin, Architettura greca, Electa, Milano 1972 (ed. 1998)
• R. Carpenter, Gli architetti del Partenone, Einaudi, Torino 1979
• J. B. Ward-Perkins, Architettura romana, Electa, Milano 1972
• Cyrill Mango, Architettura bizantina, Electa, Milano 1978
• Richard Krautheimer, Architettura paleocristiana e bizantina, ed. it., Einaudi, Torino 1986
• Ludovico Micara, Architetture e spazi dell’Islam, Roma 1985
• Attilio Petruccioli, Dar al Islam. Architetture del territorio nei paesi islamici, Carucci, Roma 1985
• Henry Stierlin, Islam. Da Baghdad a Cordova, Architettura delle origini dal VII al XIII secolo, Taschen, Köln 1997
• J.D. Hoag, Architettura islamica, Electa - collana Storia dell’Architettura
• Luca Mozzati, Islam, Electa 2002
• H. E. Kubach, Architettura romanica, Milano 1978
• L. Grodecki, Architettura gotica, Milano 1978
• C. Radding - W. Clark, Architettura e sapere nel medioevo: costruttori e maestri tra romanico e gotico, Milano 1997
• R. Bechmann, Le radici delle cattedrali, Milano 1996
• G.C. Romby, Atlante storico dell'Architettura. Il Gotico, Bologna 1994
• R. Bonelli, C. Bozzoni, V. Franchetti Pardo, Storia dell'Architettura Medievale, Bari 1997
• Leonardo Benevolo, Storia dell’architettura del Rinascimento, Roma Bari 1960, n. e. 1992
• Rudolf Wittkower, Principi architettonici dell’età dell’Umanesimo, Torino 1964
• M. Tafuri, L’architettura dell’umanesimo, Laterza, Bari 1968
• Christian Norberg-Schulz, Il significato nell’architettura occidentale, Electa, Milano 1974 (ed. 1996)
• F. P. Fiore (a cura di), Storia dell’architettura italiana. Il Quattrocento, Electa, Milano 1998
• Arnaldo Bruschi (a cura di), Storia dell’architettura italiana. Il primo Cinquecento, Electa, Milano 2002
• Claudia Conforti (a cura di), Storia dell’architettura italiana. Il secondo Cinquecento, Electa, Milano, 2001
Architectures to be analyzed during the final exam:
2) CLASSIC ARCHITECTURE
TEMPLE (hereafter T.) OF ATHENA Aphaia a EGINA
ACROPOLIS OF ATHENS: Parthenon
T. Fortuna Virile or of Portuno
T. OF HERCULES WINNER or VESTA
TRAIANO’s Forum: Mercato and Basilica Ulpia
Domus Aurea: Sala OTTAGONA
VILLA ADRIANA: TEATRO Marittimo;
Basilica of Maxentius
HALL OF GARDENS Liciniani or T. MINERVA MEDICA
St. CONSTANCE’s MAUSOLEUM
CHURCH OF SAINT PETER
BASILICA OF St. SABINA
RAVENNA, St. VITALE
St. SATURN, CAGLIARI.
JERUSALEM: DOME OF THE ROCK
PRE ROMAN AND ROMAN:
PALATINE CHAPEL OF AACHEN
St. M. IN THE CAPITOL, COLOGNE
St. AMBROGIO, MILAN
CATHEDRAL OF MODENA
BAPTISTERY OF ST JOHN, FLORENCE
S. Miniato al Monte, Florence
CATHEDRAL OF PISA AND MONUMENTAL COMPLEX
St. MARCO OF VENICE
Cathedral of Monreale
CATHEDRAL OF SAINT NICHOLAS, TRANI
St. Gavino, Portotorres
CATHEDRAL OF ST. Giusta
4) LATE MIDDLE AGE
NOTRE DAME OF PARIS
St. ELIZABETH, MARBURG
CHAPEL OF KING'S COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE
St. Francesco, IGLESIAS
ABBEY of FOSSANOVA
St. M. NOVELLA;
St. M. FIORE
CASTEL DEL MONTE;
FLORENCE, PAL. della Signoria
Dome of Santa Maria del Fiore
Porch of the Innocents
Church of St. Lorenzo and Sacristia Vecchia
Holy Spirit Church
S. Maria Novella
Sant'Andrea in Mantua
San Sebastiano in Mantua
Piazza di Pienza
Pal. Strozzi in Florence
Villa Medici at Poggio a Caiano
Pal. Farnese, Rome
Giulio Romano: Pal. TE
St. Mary at St. Satyr
S. Maria delle Grazie, Milan.
S. Pietro in Montorio,
Cortile del Belvedere,
Project for St. Peter's, Rome.
Chigi Chapel in Santa Maria del Popolo, Rome
Florence: Laurentian Library.
Piazza del Campidoglio;
Projects for St. Peter's;
La Zecca; Biblioteca Marciana, Venice.
Pal. Ragione and Teatro Olimpico in Vicenza.
S. Giorgio Maggiore; Redentore Church in Venice
Church of the Gesù in Rome
Palazzo Farnese Caprarola.