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Second Semester 
Teaching style
Lingua Insegnamento

Informazioni aggiuntive

Course Curriculum CFU Length(h)


The Course aims to provide basic knowledge in the field of Electrical and Electronic Measurements and introduce modern measurement equipment, signal conditioning and digital instruments. Continuous learning is favored by means of technical literature, manuals of manufacturers, technical standards and the law. Furthermore aspects are dealt with the experimental measurements and the laboratory tests.

More in detail, the educational goals of the course can be expressed through the following five descriptors:
- knowledge and understanding
knowledge and understanding of the fundamental theoretical and practical aspects of the electrical and electronic measurements, with particular focus on digital instruments.
- applying knowledge and understanding
Capability to understand the performance of the basic instrumentation and to choose measurement instruments according to technical and economic considerations. Awareness of the safety aspects in the use of measurement systems.
- making judgements
Capability to correctly interpret the results provided by a measurement system, according to the characteristics of its components Capability to manage the results, by also assessing the possible risks arising, for instance, from the use of non-traceable instruments.
- Communication skills
Capability to communicate technical information both orally and in writing. Ability to discuss problems and solutions with specialists and non-specialists.
- Learning skills
Capability of continuous learning, through the proper interpretation of scientific and technical literature, manuals of manufacturers and technical standards.


The knowledge of theory of electric circuits is required (in particular the following subjects: lumped circuits, steady state circuits, circuits in sinusoidal regime, filters, circuit analysis in dynamic operation). Basic concepts of system analysis are also suggested.


Introduction to the course and to its specific educational goals. Description of teaching material and of exam tests.
Fundamental concepts of measurements
Fundamental elements of a measurement. Measurement Errors. Errors in direct and indirect measurements. Measurement traceability. International metrology organization. The International System of measurement units. Measurement uncertainty. Elements of statistics and probability. Type A and Type B uncertainty evaluation. Uncertainty propagation Expanded uncertainty. Compliance tests.
Basic electrical measurements
Measurement of DC voltages and currents. Load and insertion effects. Measurement of AC quantities. Root Mean Square (RMS) and power.
Analog signal processing
Circuits with operational amplifiers. Signal conditioning. Rectifiers. Peak and peak-to-peak measurements. True RMS converters. Instrumentation amplifier.
AD and DA Conversion
Sampling and quantization. Input-Output diagrams. Quantization noise. Weighted network and R/2R DA converters. Dual ramp, successive approximations, flash and pipeline AD converters. Sample & hold. Specifications of AD and DA converters.
Digital multimeters
Block diagram. Measurement of voltage, current and resistance. Specifications of multimeters.
Data acquisition systems
Single-channel and multi-channels systems. Communication between instruments and computers. Virtual Instrumentation.
Analog oscilloscope
Cathode ray tube. Vertical channel and time basis. The trigger. Dual trace oscilloscopes Voltage probes.
Digital oscilloscope
Operation and performance. Real-time and equivalent-time sampling.
Time and frequency measurements
Circuits for time and frequency measurements. Universal counter. Binary and BCD counter. Errors in time and frequency measurements.
Analysis in the frequency domain
Sampling theorem and aliasing. Signal truncation and spectral leakage. The Discrete Fourier Transform and its practical aspects in measurement systems. Super-heterodyne spectrum analyzers. FFT spectrum analyzers.
Disturbances in electronic measurements
Common and ground connections. Inductive and capacitive coupling. Shields. Measurement noise.
Laboratory and experimental work
E1 - Uncertainty analysis. ISO GUM Standard. Data series analysis. Statistical parameters evaluation. Presentation of results: significant digits.
E2 - Digital multimeter. Alternating and continuous voltage measurement. Frequency spanning. Resistance measurement (2wire and 4wire set up). Frequency behavior.
E3 - Oscilloscope. Probe compensation. Voltage and current characteristic evaluation in electric bipole. Example for rectifier diode. Use of a digital storage oscilloscope. Acquisition of transient events.
E4 - Virtual Instruments. Introduction to virtual instruments.
E5 - Data acquisition systems. Use of data acquisition boards. Analysis and performance of basic Virtual Instruments (VI).
E6 - Analysis of signals in the frequency domain. Virtual instruments for frequency analysis. Practical aspects of sampling and signal truncation. Observation windows.

Teaching Methods

The course with e-learning features includes:
- A component of “Delivered Teaching”, divided into teaching units lasting about 20 minutes each, during which the teacher presents the subjects indicated in the program, discusses some numerical examples and illustrates the operation of the basic measurement instrumentation.
- A component of “Interactive Learning”, where students interact with the teacher or tutor in a virtual classroom with written or video mode, using tools such as email, forum, and virtual classroom / videoconferencing.

Verification of learning

The acquisition of the learning outcomes is verified through a single oral exam, during which students are asked to discuss some of the topics covered in the course, possibly with the help of simple numerical examples.
The score of the examination is provided by a grade out of thirty. To pass the exam the student must attest a basic knowledge of all the topics discussed. In order to achieve the maximum score, the student must demonstrate to know the topics in an excellent way.
The assessment takes into account the capacity of both present with rigor and effectiveness the theoretical subjects and highlight their practical aspects.


1. Notes of the teacher, available at:
2. M. Savino: Fondamenti di scienza delle misure. Nuova Italia Scientifica, 1992
3. U. Pisani: Misure Elettroniche. POLITEKO Edizioni, 1999
4. G. Iuculano, D. Mirri: Misure Elettroniche. CEDAM, 2002

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