70/0017-M - CHEMISTRY 2
Academic Year 2021/2022
Free text for the University
FRANCESCO DELOGU (Tit.)
- Teaching style
- Lingua Insegnamento
|[70/77] CHEMICAL ENGINEERING||[77/00 - Ord. 2020] PERCORSO COMUNE||6||60|
1) Main objective: Understanding the mechanisms governing the chemical transformations in terms of atomic and molecular structure. The systematic analysis of chemical reactivity is restricted to a few specific classes of chemical compounds and transformations of general interest and technological potential.
2) Knowledge and understanding: Acquisition of fundamental notions regarding the structure of matter and the basic principles governing the physico-chemical transformation processes (phase transitions, chemical reactions, etc.).
3) Applying knowledge and understanding: Development of the necessary basic tools to qualitatively relate chemical properties to molecular structure.
4) Making judgements: Autonomous evaluation of the limits of validity of the physico-chemical models developed to rationalize the structure of matter and the chemical reactivity.
5) Communication skills: Expertise in the discussion of specific subjects related to atomic and molecular structure, as well as to the thermodynamics and kinetics of chemical reactions.
6) Learning skills: Development of the necessary conceptual framework to discuss physical and chemical processes within Engineering.
Prerequisites involves fundamental knowledge acquired attending the first-year lesson courses of Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry
Short reminders concerning General Chemistry, chemical bonds, atomic species and Periodic Table.
Molecules: polar and nonpolar molecules, intermolecular forces, Lewis structures, resonance, acids and bases.
Kinetics and thermodynamics: general issues, equilibrium.
Carbon-carbon bonds: geometry of organic molecules.
Alkanes: structure, nomenclature, physical properties, reactivity.
Reaction of alkanes: radicals, carbocations, alkyl halides, substitution reactions of alkyl halides (SN2 and SN1 mechanisms), elimination reactions (E1 and E2 mechanisms).
Alkenes: structure, nomenclature, physical properties, reactivity, alkyl halogenides, dehydriding of alkanes, dehydration of alcohols.
Additions to alkenes: mechanism of hydrogen halide additions, regiochemistry, resonance effects, carbocation stabilities, addition of other unsymmetrical reagents, hydroboration.
Alkynes: structure, nomenclature, physical properties, reactivity.
Chemical reactivity: carbocation rearrangements, addition of halogens to alkenes, oxymercuration, epoxidation and chemistry of oxiranes, cyclopropanation, carbenes, ozonolysis, alkene oxidations with permanganate and osmium tetroxide, addition reactions of alkynes.
Dienes: structure, nomenclature, physical properties, reactivity, dienes and the allyl system, conjugation, introduction to the concept of aromaticity.
Alcohols: structure, nomenclature, physical properties, reactivity, dehydration, reaction with acids, oxidation, polyalcohols.
Ethers: structure, nomenclature, physical properties, reactivity.
Aromatic compounds: benzene and alkyl-benzene, structure, nomenclature, physical properties, reactivity.
Electrophilic substitution: side chain reactivity, conjugation.
Aldehydes and ketones: structure, nomenclature, physical properties, reactivity, nucleophilic additions.
Phenols: structure, nomenclature, physical properties, reactivity, acid character, ring substitutions.
Carboxylic acids: structure, nomenclature, physical properties, reactivity, acid character, esters, lactams.
Amines: structure, nomenclature, physical properties, reactivity.
Polymers: structure, nomenclature, physical properties, synthesis.
Acids and bases
Brønsted-Lowry acids and bases
Acid dissociation constants
Lewis acids and bases
Alcohols and alkyl halides, diols, thiols
Alkanes and cycloalkanes
Amino acids, peptides, proteins
Organic redox reaction
Electrophilic aromatic substitution
Nucleophilic aromatic substitution
The lesson course consists of frontal lessons for a total of 60 hours.
Lectures will be prevalently held in classrooms, also integrated with online teaching resources, by using specific online platforms managed by the University of Cagliari.
Classroom exercises will be performed during the whole course.
Verification of learning
Exams consist of a written examination comprising questions over general subjects and numerical exercises on stoichiometry involving the whole syllabus. All questions and exercises must be correctly dealt with for the examination to be approved. Final vote will be expressed on a total score (best result) of 30. A minimum score of 18 is requested to have examination approved. Students can access an oral examination on demand if their written examination has been approved.
Students must exhibit (i) understanding of the chemical equilibria and of the mechanisms governing chemical transformations in terms of atomic and molecular structure, (ii) analytical capabilities concerning chemical reactivity for those classes of chemical compounds and transformations of general interest and technological potential (iii) ability of exploiting fundamental notions regarding the structure of matter and the basic principles governing the physico-chemical transformations, (iv) capability of applying basic tools for solving numerical exercises.
Finally, students must be able to corectly communicate acquired notions.
Final score will depend on the level of knowledge, understanding, connection and presentation of the syllabus. Generically, votes can be expected to range as follows:
Excellent skills 28-30
Good skills 24-27
Basic skills 18-23
1. P. Silvestroni, Fondamenti di Chimica, Veschi Editore, Roma
2. T. W. Graham Solomons, Chimica Organica, Editoriale Grasso, Bologna
Exam texts from previous exam sessions.