Teachings

Select Academic Year:     2016/2017 2017/2018 2018/2019 2019/2020 2020/2021 2021/2022
Professor
ANNALISA VACCA (Tit.)
Period
First Semester 
Teaching style
Convenzionale 
Lingua Insegnamento
ITALIANO 



Informazioni aggiuntive

Course Curriculum CFU Length(h)
[70/77]  CHEMICAL ENGINEERING [77/00 - Ord. 2020]  PERCORSO COMUNE 9 90

Objectives

The aim of the course is to give the necessary bases to interpret the chemical phenomena, to know the structure and properties of matter, to evaluate and to understand the energetic phenomena related to chemical and electrochemical systems.
In particular, the student will have the following learning outcomes:
Knowledge and understanding: At the end of the course the student will acquire the basic knowledge of chemistry with particular regard to the structure of matter and the principles governing its chemical and physical transformations (phase transformations and chemical reactions). The correlation between the chemical equilibria, the energetic phenomena and mechanisms of transformation with the atomic structure and the nature of chemical bonds, is the main objective of the course. The systematic study of the chemical behaviour is limited to some elements and their derivatives of practical interest.
Applying knowledge and understanding: the student will be able to apply the knowledge on the structure of matter and the principles governing its transformation with regard to the interpretation and stoichiometric balance of chemical reactions, knowledge of the structure of solids (ionic, covalent, metallic and molecular), basic chemical properties of liquids, gases and solutions, interpretation and calculation of energetic phenomena related to chemical and electrochemical systems. The student will be able to apply this knowledge to the solution of numerical problems.
Making judgements: The student will be able to assess:
- The validity and limitations of the approximation of the interpretative models of the structure of matter;
- Fields of application of the principles of thermodynamics and kinetics to conducting chemical reactions.
Communication skills: The student will acquire the ability to communicate those concepts concerning the structure of matter and the principles of thermodynamics and kinetics of chemical reactions using appropriate scientific language.
Learning skills: The knowledge gained will contribute to the formation of knowledge of the physical and chemical disciplines; this will allow the student to continue his engineering studies with higher autonomy and discernment.

Prerequisites

The course is in first year and therefore the prerequisites are those required for passing the test of access to the Faculty of Engineering. The basic knowledge on the constituent of the atom and the periodic table of elements, the symbols of elements and compounds, the balance of the elementary reactions, bases of stoichiometry are useful to attend the course. The knowledge of unit of measurement, logarithm and one-variable linear equations are required to attend (or to study individually) the course.

Contents

ELEMENTS, SUBSTANCES AND STOICHIOMETRY (5 hours of lecture-4 hours of exercise): Fundamental particles of the atom, atomic number and mass number; nuclides, isotopes and chemical elements; Relative atomic mass; Substances and molecular formula. Relative molecular masses and relative formal masses. Elemental composition and empirical and molecular formula. The mole. Chemical reactions and stoichiometry. Reaction yield.
ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND PERIODIC CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS (6 hours of lecture-2 hours of exercise): Corpuscular and wave theory of light. Atomic spectra. Hydrogen atom structure and atomic models of Bohr. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. De Broglie equation. Quantum-wave model of hydrogen. Quantum numbers and atomic orbitals. Electronic structure of polyelectronic atoms. Periodic Table and periodic properties of the elements.
CHEMICAL BONDS (6 hours of lecture - 3 hours of exercise): Ionic bond: reticular energy. Covalent bond: valence and molecular orbital theories. Molecular geometry, hybridization and VSEPR. Resonance. Metallic bond. Intermolecular bonds: dipole-dipole, hydrogen bond, London dispersion force.
OXIDATION STATE OF ELEMENTS, REDOX REACTIONS, CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE (4 hours of lecture - 3 hours of exercise): Oxidation state. Change in the oxidation state: oxidation, reduction and redox reactions. Balance of redox reactions. Chemical nomenclature.
STATE OF MATTER (5 hours of lecture-3 hours of exercise): Gaseous State. Macroscopic properties of the gas and ideal gas equation of state; Application of gas law in chemistry; Notes on statistical distribution of velocity and translational kinetic energy (Maxwell-Boltzmann). Gaseous Mixtures: molar fractions, partial pressures. Solid state. Ionic, molecular, covalent and metallic solids. Liquid state. Liquid solutions: concentration and dilution.
THERMODYNAMICS: (6 hours of lecture-2 hours of exercise): Thermodynamic systems and surrounding: state functions. Heat and work. I° law of thermodynamics. Enthalpy and Hess law. II° law of thermodynamics. Entropy. Entropy at absolute zero (III° law of thermodynamics). Free energy of Gibbs. Criteria of spontaneity and equilibrium in reaction and phase transformation.
PHASE EQUILIBRIA (3 hours of lecture): Balance between different phases of the same substance: equation; phases diagram of water and carbon dioxide.
PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS (4 hours of lecture-2 hours of exercise): Colligative properties: vapour pressure lowering, freezing point depression, boiling point elevation, osmotic pressure.
OUTLINE OF KINETICS AND CATALYSIS (2 hours of lecture): Speed of reactions. Activation energy and catalysts
CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM (6 hours of lecture-3 hours of exercise): Homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical equilibria. Gibbs energy. Equilibrium law: definition of the equilibrium constant and its dependence on the temperature. Le Chatelier's principle and the influence of temperature on the equilibrium.
IONIC EQUILIBRIUM IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION (6 hours of lecture-4 hours of exercise): Definition of acid and base according to Arrhenius, Bronsted acid-base reaction; Autoionization of water. Definition and calculation of pH. Electrolytes: acid, base, salts and ampholytes. Strength of acids and bases: structural factors. Buffer solutions. Acid-base titration. Saturated solution of electrolytes. Solubility and solubility product. Colligative properties of solutions containing electrolytes.
ELECTROCHEMISTRY (6 hours of lecture-4 hours of exercise): Redox reactions and balancing. Electrochemical devices: galvanic cells and electrolysis cells, the Nernst equation; electromotive force of a galvanic element; Tables of standard reduction potentials; Electrolysis and Faraday's law. Overpotential definition.

Teaching Methods

Teaching will be mainly face to face, with the aid also of online strategies, in order to guarantee its use in an innovative and inclusive way. Therefore, traditional lectures and online lessons using blended learning strategies are provided.
Multiple choice tests will be done by smartphone with moodle app at the end of each section in order to assess the level of advances of the class. The discussion of the real time response will allow to recall some arguments. All materials are available in the e-learning site. Communications outside of teaching slots also make use of tools such as MS Teams.

Verification of learning

The final exam consists of a written test. The oral exam is not compulsory. The written test includes the resolution of one or more numerical problems, similar to those carried out in the classroom exercises, and a series of questions on the topics of the course. In particular, the numerical problems are aimed to ascertain the ability to apply knowledge on the structure of the matter and on principles of its transformation including stoichiometry, chemical properties of gas liquids and solutions, energetic evaluation of chemical and electrochemical systems. The answers of theoretical questions are devoted to the asses the level of understanding of chemical equilibria, energetic phenomena and transformation of the matter. Moreover, also the communication skills such as, synthesis, clarity and use of technical language will be ascertained with the written exam. The written test examination contributes to vote up to a maximum of 27/30. The assessment of learning outcomes is complemented by the oral test (not compulsory). Moreover, two written intermediate tests during the course can be done with a punctuation of 12 and 15 respectively: the sum of the two intermediate tests constitute the final score of the written exam.
In order to pass the exam (18/30), the student must demonstrate basic knowledge of the fundamental principles governing the properties and transformations of the matter, must be able to identify and use the procedures necessary for solving some of the proposed questions. To achieve a score of 30/30 and praise the student must demonstrate the achievement of excellent knowledge of the subject, with a great degree of deepening. It will also be able to propose and develop the most appropriate approach to problem solving. The student will also be able to easily connect the different topics of the course and illustrate the with language-specific and explicative exposure the subjects of the oral test. May change due to COVID emergency.

Texts

Napoli; Schiavello-Palmisano, “Fondamenti di Chimica”,
D.W.Oxtoboy, N.H.Nachtrib – “Chimica moderna” – Edises
Edises Napoli; Silvestroni, “Fondamenti di Chimica”; ed. Veschi.

More Information

The didactic material including lecture slides, exercises and exam texts from previous sessions can be downloaded from Moodle.

Questionnaire and social

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