Teachings

Select Academic Year:     2017/2018 2018/2019 2019/2020 2020/2021 2021/2022 2022/2023
Professor
BERNHARD ELSENER (Tit.)
Period
Second Semester 
Teaching style
Convenzionale 
Lingua Insegnamento
ITALIANO 



Informazioni aggiuntive

Course Curriculum CFU Length(h)
[70/72]  CIVIL ENGINEERING [72/00 - Ord. 2021]  PERCORSO COMUNE 5 50

Objectives

The main goal of the course “Tecnologia dei Materiali e Chimica Applicata” is that the students know the fundamental aspects on the technological behavior and the properties of the different materials, mainly metals and alloys and reinforced concrete. The focus lies on deep understanding of the relation between the mechanisms on the atomic and crystallographic level and the materials properties. In addition, the students shall know the mechanism of materials degradation (corrosion) and thus the durability of metals and alloys in different environments as well as reinforced concrete.

Durante il corso vengono inoltre forniti gli elementi per
conoscenza e capacità di comprensione:
- conoscere le diverse leghe metalliche industrialmente utilizzati e avere conoscenze di base sulla loro lavorazione.
- conoscere i livelli della struttura dei materiali (atomico, reticolo cristallino, microstruttura) e capire su una base scientifica la correlazione tra struttura e proprietà
- individuare i meccanismi che permettono di influenzare / modificare le proprietà meccaniche dei metalli ed essere in grado di spiegare perché
- comprendere il trattamento termico delle diverse leghe metalliche
- utilizzare corretti termini tecnici della materia per esprimersi in maniera adeguata
- distinguere tra una descrizione e una spiegazione del comportamento dei materiali

autonomia di giudizio: lo studente saprà, almeno preliminarmente, valutare in maniera critica i vantaggi e svantaggi dei diversi materiali utilizzati in ingegneria civile e scegliere il materiale più adatto per una specifica applicazione.

abilità comunicative: alcune parti delle esercitazioni sono sviluppate come lavoro di gruppo favorendo la comunicazione e lo scambio di valutazione. Lo studente impara ad utilizzare i termini tecnici della Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali per poter interagire con i specialisti della materia.

capacità di apprendere autonomamente: allo studente viene fornito ulteriore materiale didattico (libri, siti web dedicati, etc.) per approfondire autonomamente la materia. Lo studente dovrebbe avere indicazioni di base su dove e come trovare ulteriori approfondimenti.

Prerequisites

The students should have completed prerequisites in chemistry (atomic structure, chemical bonding, binding energy), physics and mathematics (exponential functions, logarithm).

Contents

The course intends to provide an understanding of the relationship between structure, processing and properties of materials, focused on metallic materials and reinforced concrete.
Part 1 (6 hours lecture, 2 hours exercises)
- introduction / organization / structural levels of the materials
- structure of the atoms, chemical bonds, binding energy, technical properties of materials that depend on the binding energy (Tfus, thermal expansion, Young’s modulus)
- the different crystal structures, elementary cell, difference , lattice type CS, CCC, CFC, EC, close packed planes, relation between cell constant and atomic radius

Part 2 (6 hours lecture, 2 hours exercises)
- lattice types (rip.), significance and meaning of “defects”, point defects (vacancy, thermal equilibrium, importance)
- creation of alloys, conditions for complete and partial miscibility, electrical resistance, increase of mechanical strength by alloying
- line defects, dislocations (edge and screw dislocations) importance for plastic deformation. Film on the movement of dislocations under shear stress. Movement in crystal lattice CFC, EC (and in CCC). tcrit . grain boundaries, law of Hall Petch

Part 3 (6 hours lecture, 2 hours exercises)
- Brain storming “properties of materials”, adjectives for correct description. Mechanical tests, tensile test, movement and blocking of dislocations, influence of crystal lattice CFC or CCC
- Cold working, strengthening by plastic deformation. Yield stress, brittle – ductile. Hardness test, relation to sm.
- Charpy test, impact. Influence of temperature and crystal lattice CFC and CCC (with transition brittle - ductile). Creep test, mechanism of creep, influence of grain boundaries.

Part 4 (6 hours lecture, 2 hours exercises)
- Diffusion in solids, diffusion coefficient, Arrhenius law, temperature
- Diffusion velocity, influence of crystal lattice and size of the atom
- Process of recovery and recristallization, conditions for recrystallization (30% cold deformation, energy of nucleation, T > Tricr diffusion, growth)
- Phase diagrams, solidification, rule of Gibbs, binary alloys with complete miscibility. How to read concentration, how to read composition. Mechanical and electrical properties. Binary alloys forming an eutectic, eutectic transformation, solidification in equilibrium, segregation

Part 5 (6 hours lecture, 2 hours exercises)
- Steels, carbon steels, Fe-Fe3C diagram, phases ferrite, austenite, cementite. Microstructure pearlite. Phase transformation from austenite to pearlite, eutectoidic transformation
- Influence of carbon content on mechanical properties of steels. Influence of transformation temperature, formation of bainite or martensite.
- Influence of carbon content on hardness of martensite, tempering of martensite, transformation into globular cementite

Part 6 (6 hours lecture, 4 hours exercises)
- Fundamentals of corrosion, termodynamics, kinetics, corrosion potential and corrosion rate, passivation, localized corrosion, Pourbaix diagrams, polarization curves i/E
- Structure and properties of concrete, cement hydration, types of porosity, capillary porosity, w/c ratio, influence of SCM
- Durability of reinforced concrete, passiviation, depassivation by reaction with CO2 (carbonatation), by penetration of chlorides. Conditions for corrosion.
- Condition assessment of RC structures, non destructive techniques, half cell potential mapping
- Methods of diagnosis, prevention and repair

Teaching Methods

The course is based on lectures (about 2/3 of the hours assigned) where the students are encouraged to actively participate with questions, short exercises and the introduction of new topics with "brain storming".
About 1/3 of the time is used for exercises that are hold in smaller groups.

Verification of learning

During the course one (or two) written exams are held. The questions are of the same type as the exercises, focused on the comprehension and not on simple calculations. In the first intermediate exam books, lecture notes etc can be used, in the second one this is no more permitted.
The two intermediate exams are corrected. In addition to the discussion in the class every student gets an individual correction of his exam. The results of the exams are presented as histograms, allowing the students to compare their preparation with the whole class. Students that have passed the two intermediate exams (not as average) can proceed to the final oral examination. All others have to give a final written exam.

Texts

Callister W.D.: “Scienza e Ingegneria dei Materiali – un introduzione”, 2007 EdiSES, Napoli
Smith W.: "Scienza e tecnologia dei materiali", McGraw-Hill, Milano
Bertolini L. et al.: “Tecnologia dei materiali, Città Studi Edizioni” 2000 UTET Libreria
Pedeferri P.: “La Corrosione nel calcestruzzo e negli ambienti naturali”, McGraw-Hill, Milano, 1996
Elsener B. et al.: Corrosion of steel in concrete, WILEY 2013
Atzeni C., Pia G., Sanna U. I materiali dell'edilizia storica. Storia, tecnologia, applicazioni. Aracne 2010.

More Information

In order to help students to study the topics of the course additional material is provided:
- copy of the slides of the lectures
- link to the registration of the lectures
- exercises resolved during the course with respective solutions
- additional exercises
- examples of intermediate tests with solutions
- examples of exams
In addition links to other didactic material, films and tutorials are given.

Questionnaire and social

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