Teachings
IN/0091  APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS
Academic Year 2020/2021
Free text for the University
 Professor

ROBERTO BACCOLI (Tit.)
 Period

First Semester
 Teaching style

Convenzionale
 Lingua Insegnamento

ITALIANO
Informazioni aggiuntive
Course  Curriculum  CFU  Length(h) 

[70/72] CIVIL ENGINEERING  [72/00  Ord. 2013] PERCORSO COMUNE  5  50 
[70/78] MECHANICAL ENGINEERING  [78/00  Ord. 2019] PERCORSO COMUNE  6  60 
Objectives
The course is designed to provide the knowledges and skills respect to the following topics:
Theoretical aspects
What quantities, laws and principles define and influence a complex thermodynamic system?
The laws of the thermal radiation exchange.
The laws of the heat transfer, multidimensional, transient and steadystate conduction, convection and thermodynamic effects related to their interactions with the matter.
Fundamentals on Energy and Exergy analysis in order to get the basic concepts to evaluate efficiency and the energy performances for the energy conversion systems in all its forms.
Applied knowledge to be able to :
1) generate the right thermodynamic framework for the systems in exchange conditions of heat, radiation, work, and flow mass, as a result of the application of the thermodynamics principles;
2) evaluate the conversion efficiency of the complex thermodynamic systems
3) design materials respect to their thermotechnics proprieties in order to get specific thermodynamic condition under conduction, convection and radiation heat transfer.
Prerequisites
General Physics I and II;
Calculus I and II
Contents
INTRODUCTION TO THERMODYNAMICS:
Target and Topics of the Thermodynamics
Generalized Thermodynamic coordinates;
Definition of a thermodynamics system
Definition of the Exchange quantities: Mass, heat, radiation and work.
Simple and complex thermodynamic systems
Definition and proprieties of the ideal gas
HEAT TRANSFER AND THERMAL RADIATION
Fundamentals on heat transfer by conduction. The Fourier, Laplace and Poisson Laws
Fundamentals on heat transfer by convection. The Newton law, basic concept on thermal boundary layer. Free and forced convection, dimensional analysis and Buckingham theorem. Internal and external flow. The case of flat plate at zero incidence, a pipe at perpendicular incidence.
Thermal Radiation
The black body irradiance, the StephanBoltzaman, Plank and Wien laws. Lambertian surfaces and carachteristics of irradiance of the actual surfaces: emissivity, reflectivity, absorptivity and transmissivity, monochromatic and complete. The radiation exchange between bodies: the electrical analogy by means the view factor.
Thermal exchange in the presence of combined mechanisms. Electrical Analogy between thermal flux and electrical flux: the thermal trasmittance.
THE LAWS OF THE THERMODYNAMICS (0th,1st,2nd,3rd laws )
The adiabatic work and the internal energy
The work conversion into heat and the heat conversion into work.
The 1st law of the thermodynamics:
The extension of the 1st law of the thermodynamics to the thermal radiation
First law equation for quasistatic and non quasistatic processes.
The pvt surface for a pure substance
Heat and work exchanges, internal energy and enthalpy changes respect to fundamental processes (adiabatic, isothermal, isobar and isovolumetric, polytropic process).
The Thermodynamics of an open system.
The first law of thermodynamics for an open system: some applications (Heat exchangers expander, nozzle, diffuser, lamination).
The heat conversion into work the 2nd law of the thermodynamics: the thermal engine and the refrigerator systems.
The ideal monosource heat engine, the ideal bithermic heat engine and the economic principle. Statements of the 2nd law (Kelvin Plank, Clausius and the unicity of the quasistatic adiabatic process through a thermodynamic point).
Fundamental theorems:
equivalence of the 2nd law statements, Carnot theorem, thermodynamics themperature, Clausius theorem.
The Entropy quantity.
The entropy change for reversible and irreversibile processes. The entropy production principle. Exergy analysis.
Useful Thermodynamic charts
(T,s,) chart,
(h,s) chart,
(p,h) chart,
(T,h) chart,
Teaching Methods
Due to the spread of Covid19 desease , a specific teaching approach could be necessary for guarantee the social distancing measures . To this end, the teaching activity should be accessible "in presence" and simultaneously also by online mode. Before the beginning of the semester, each student have to opt (with a binding choice), if attending the lessons in presence or at online mode.
INTRODUCTION TO THERMODYNAMICS(theory: 4 hours, exercises: 1 hour)
HEAT AND thermal RADIATION (theory: 8 hours, exercises 6 hours)
THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS FOR CLOSED SYSTEMS (WITHOUT FLOW) (theory: 9 hours, exercises: 4 hours)
THERMODYNAMICS OF OPEN SYTEM (theory: 4 hours, exercises 2 hours)
CONVERSION OF HEAT INTO WORK: THE 2nd LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS, THERMAL ENIGINES AND REFRIGERATOR SYSTEM: 5 hours, exercises 2 hours)
FUNDAMENTAL THEOREMS  (theory: 4 hours, exercises 1 hours)
Teaching Methods
Due to the spread of Covid19 desease , a specific teaching approach could be necessary for guarantee the social distancing measures . To this end, the teaching activity should be accessible "in presence" and simultaneously also by online mode. Before the beginning of the semester, each student have to opt (with a binding choice), if attending the lessons in presence or at online mode.
INTRODUCTION TO THERMODYNAMICS(theory: 4 hours, exercises: 1 hour)
HEAT AND thermal RADIATION (theory: 8 hours, exercises 6 hours)
THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS FOR CLOSED SYSTEMS (WITHOUT FLOW) (theory: 9 hours, exercises: 4 hours)
THERMODYNAMICS OF OPEN SYTEM (theory: 4 hours, exercises 2 hours)
CONVERSION OF HEAT INTO WORK: THE 2nd LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS, THERMAL ENIGINES AND REFRIGERATOR SYSTEM: 5 hours, exercises 2 hours)
FUNDAMENTAL THEOREMS  (theory: 9 hours, exercises 6 hours)
Verification of learning
Final exam and scoring Method:
Verification of learning process consists of a written and oral test.
Both tests are aimed at determining the student's ability in formulating the correct thermodynamic framework of a physical problem in which heat exchanges by conduction and convection, radiation, work, and mass drive a thermodynamic process of a given system. The correct formulation should be developed accordingly to the thermodynamic laws with the aim to establish the quantitative relationships between the heat and the radiation exchanges, the work done and the evolution of the thermodynamic coordinates that describe the state of a system.
The written test consists in carrying out 6 punctual questions concerning all the topics covered in class.
Two of six are theoretical questions:
They concern the statements of the thermodynamic principles, the cardinal theorems, the description of the mechanisms and laws of heat and radiation exchange and in general all the remarkable results achieved through purely theoretical demonstration.
Four of six are exercises on numerical applications prevalently concerning the following aspects.
a) numerical applications on the use of the first and second thermodynamic law for closed and open systems.
b) calculations of the internal state quantities: variations of the internal energy, enthalpy and entropy rising from reversible and irreversible processes caused by exchange of work, heat, radiation, and mass.
c) numerical analysis of the energy conversion processes performed by prime mover and refrigeration machines. Conversion efficiency and irreversibility analysis.
d) evaluation of heat and temperature distribution in problems based on the presence of both simple and combined heat exchange mechanisms.
Scoring Method
A score ranging from zero to six can be assigned to each question of the "written test".
As concerning the written part of the test, the perfect score (30, 30 with honors) can be achieved if five answers among the six proposed are right and exhaustively presented
The answers that are not supported by an adequate theoretical and /or numerical justification may not be judged with a full score.
The oral test can be only taken after passing the "written test". It consists in a series of questions, (maximum three), aimed at verifying the mastery of some specific topics that are already developed in response to the 6 questions of the "written test", or even in verifying some aspects of the "written test" that have not received any answer.
A score ranging from zero to three can be assigned to the "written test".
The overall score will be obtained by summing the score of the "written test" with the score of the "oral test".
Verification of learning
Final exam and scoring Method:
The Verification of the learning process consists of a written and oral test.
Both tests are aimed at determining the student's ability in formulating the correct thermodynamic framework of a physical problem in which heat exchanges by conduction and convection, radiation, work, and mass drive a thermodynamic process of a given system. The correct formulation should be developed accordingly to the thermodynamic laws with the aim to establish the quantitative relationships between the heat and the radiation exchanges, the work done and the evolution of the thermodynamic coordinates that describe the state of a system.
The written test consists in carrying out 6 punctual questions concerning all the topics covered in class.
Two of six are theoretical questions:
They concern the statements of the thermodynamic principles, the cardinal theorems, the description of the mechanisms and laws of heat and radiation exchange and in general all the remarkable results achieved through purely theoretical demonstration.
Four of six are exercises on numerical applications prevalently concerning the following aspects.
a) numerical applications on the use of the first and second thermodynamic law for closed and open systems.
b) calculations of the internal state quantities: variations of the internal energy, enthalpy and entropy rising from reversible and irreversible processes caused by exchange of work, heat, radiation, and mass.
c) numerical analysis of the energy conversion processes performed by prime mover and refrigeration machines. Conversion efficiency and irreversibility analysis.
d) evaluation of heat and temperature distribution in problems based on the presence of both simple and combined heat exchange mechanisms.
Scoring Method
A score ranging from zero to six can be assigned to each question of the "written test".
As concerning the written part of the test, the perfect score (30, 30 with honors) can be achieved if five answers among the six proposed are right and exhaustively presented
The answers that are not supported by an adequate theoretical and /or numerical justification may not be judged with a full score.
The oral test can be only taken after passing the "written test". It consists in a series of questions, (maximum three), aimed at verifying the mastery of some specific topics that are already developed in response to the 6 questions of the "written test", or even in verifying some aspects of the "written test" that have not received any answer.
A score ranging from zero to three can be assigned to the "written test".
The overall score will be obtained by summing the score of the "written test" with the score of the "oral test".
Texts
"Heat and Thermodynamics " M.W Zemansky M.M. Abbott H.C. Van Hess Zanichelli.
"Lezioni di Fisica Tecnica" Paolo Giuseppe Mura Cuec editore
"Principles of Heat Transfer " Frank Kreith Cengage learning "Termodinamica Applicata" Lino Mattarolo Cleup editrice
Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, Yunus A. Çengel, Michael A. Boles Mc Graw Hill
For further exercises entirely solved, the interested student is invited to consider the following textbooks: "Termodinamica Applicata" Lino Mattarolo Cleup editrice
Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, Yunus A. Çengel, Michael A. Boles Mc Graw Hill
For further exercises entirely solved, the interested student is invited to consider the following textbooks: Fisica Tecnica Esercizi di Giancarlo Giambelli e Cesare Magli , Maggioli Editore
Esercizi svolti di Termodinamica Volumi I, II, III e Tabelle P. Gregorio Levrotto e Bella Libreria Editrice Universitaria
Esercitazioni di Fisica Tecnica Boris Igor Palella , Aracne Editrice
Esercizi di Termofluidodinamica, Beatrice Pulvirenti, Progetto Leonardo Editore
Teoria ed esercizi di Trasmissione del Calore e Termofluidodinamica, Marco Spiga , Progetto Leonardo Editore
Texts
"Heat and Thermodynamics " M.W Zemansky M.M. Abbott H.C. Van Hess Zanichelli.
"Lezioni di Fisica Tecnica" Paolo Giuseppe Mura Cuec editore
"Principles of Heat Transfer " Frank Kreith Cengage learning "Termodinamica Applicata" Lino Mattarolo Cleup editrice
Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, Yunus A. Çengel, Michael A. Boles Mc Graw Hill
For further exercises entirely solved, the interested student is invited to consider the following textbooks:"Termodinamica Applicata" Lino Mattarolo Cleup editrice
Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, Yunus A. Çengel, Michael A. Boles Mc Graw Hill
For further exercises entirely solved, the interested student is invited to consider the following textbooks: Fisica Tecnica Esercizi di Giancarlo Giambelli e Cesare Magli , Maggioli Editore
Esercizi svolti di Termodinamica Volumi I, II, III e Tabelle P. Gregorio Levrotto e Bella Libreria Editrice Universitaria
Esercitazioni di Fisica Tecnica Boris Igor Palella , Aracne Editrice
Esercizi di Termofluidodinamica, Beatrice Pulvirenti, Progetto Leonardo Editore
Teoria ed esercizi di Trasmissione del Calore e Termofluidodinamica, Marco Spiga , Progetto Leonardo Editore
More Information
http://people.unica.it/robertobaccoli/didattica/
http://people.unica.it/lrobertobaccoli/didattica/