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First Semester 
Teaching style
Lingua Insegnamento

Informazioni aggiuntive

Course Curriculum CFU Length(h)
[70/72]  CIVIL ENGINEERING [72/00 - Ord. 2013]  PERCORSO COMUNE 10 100


The Integrated Topography and Topography Laboratory Course aims to provide the basic knowledge of Geodesy, Cartography and the technical-scientific knowledge necessary to design, execute and process high-precision topographic surveys performed with electronic and satellite instrumentation. The knowledge will provide the student with professionalism in the field of modern land surveying and architectural heritage, monitoring and control of natural phenomena (landslides, erosion, seismic phenomena and the like) and deformations of large structures (dams, bridges and viaducts).
More in detail, the following educational objectives are envisaged:
Knowledge and understanding: Knowing and understanding the basic concepts of Geodesy and Topography, of the constructive characteristics of topographic tools, of the treatment of observations and of Cartography
Ability to apply knowledge and understanding: ability to design a topographic survey, to correctly use the most common topographic tools, to process measurements and to return them correctly in numerical and graphic form, ability to read a topographic map, to use a digital card, or other mouse-cartographic products, within a GIS or engineering design software.
Making judgments: being able to assess the quality of a survey carried out on one's own or produced by others, being able to take the appropriate actions to correct and improve the work done.
Communication skills: knowing the technical terms of the subject, knowing how to present the results of a topographical survey, knowing how to talk to a professional surveyor.
Learning skills: being able to understand the contents of the user manual of a new topographic tool and of a software dedicated to topography.


The student must have the prerequisites for access to Engineering courses, mainly on the topics listed below. Geometry, segments and angles; measurements and properties. Lines and planes. Significant loci. Properties of the main plane geometric figures (triangles, circles, regular polygons, etc.) and their perimeters and areas. Properties of the main solid geometric figures (spheres, cones, cylinders, prisms, parallelepipeds, pyramids, ellipsoids, etc.) and their volumes and areas. Cartesian coordinates. The concept of function. Equations of lines and of simple loci (circles, ellipses, parabolas, etc.). Basic elementary notions of statistics is required (permutation, combination, mean, variance and frequency). Basic notions to read frequency diagrams and histograms. The understanding and knowledge of the following topics and concepts is required: scalar and vector quantity, measurement of physical volumes and measurement unit system; definitions of the fundamental physical volumes (displacement, velocity, acceleration, mass, momentum, force, weight, work and power); Newtons first law, Newtons law of universal gravitation. Principles of geometric optics; reflection, refraction; refractive index; prisms; mirrors and concave and convex lenses; elementary knowledge of lens systems and instruments.
Courses in Analisi matematica 1, Fondamenti di Informatica, Laboratorio di Disegno, Analisi matematica 2, Geometria e Algebra, Fisica 1, Fisica 2 are preparatory. In addition, the student must attend the course of Hydrology at the same time for the part in which the Statistics is treated.
In addition, the student must attend the course of Hydrology and Statistics at the same time for the part in which the Statistics is treated.


Basic concepts of surveying. Geodesy and cartography: the geoid as a natural reference surface, the ellipsoid, other reference surfaces, cartography. Datums: local datums (ROMA40, ED50, cadastral), global datums (WGS84, ITRFXX, ETRFXX), vertical datum. Datum transformations, the transform from ellipsoidal to orthometric heights. Basic concepts on cartography (deformations and deformation modules). Planar cartographic coordinates, cartographic projections: Gauss conformal projection, Gauss-Boaga, UTM and cadastral projections. The contents of the topographic map, numerical cartography and data-bases, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), raster and vector data (the DTMs, the orthophotos). The official Italian cartographic production.
Measurement processing: general introduction to the concept of measurement, types of errors, error propagation.
Measurement operations: units of measurement and conventions. Simple devices for topographic survey (signals, bench marks, plumb line, circular and tubular bubbles, poles, rods, ribbons).
Tools for measuring angles and distances: the theodolite, instrumental errors, instrument adjustment, field procedure, measuring angles, electronic distance meters (measuring principles, instrument specifications, errors). Developments in theodolites and EDM, Total Station and Laser Scanner.
Tools for the measurement of difference in level: tilting levels and levelling staffs, principle of levelling, instrument adjustment, source of errors. Automation: automatic and digital levels.
Conventional control surveys. Triangulation, resection, intersection, traversing, networks. Geometrical reductions for measured distances, the detection of points for the realization of topographic networks, the detection of detail points, trigonometrical levelling.
Principles of levelling. Reduction of level. Levelling applications. Precise geodetic levelling. Classification of geodetic leveling.
Satellite positioning: GPS, GLONASS and GALILEO satellite positioning systems system and signal description, code and phase observables. GPS errors. Satellite receivers: tasks, basic components, types of receivers. GPS detection: absolute and relative positioning, static and kinematic positioning.

Teaching Methods

The Topography module includes lectures for a total of 54 hours and 6 hours for the viewing of topographic tools and dedicated software.
The Topography Laboratory module is divided into:
- explanation in class of the activities that will be carried out and their purpose (12 hours)
- campaign operations, in which the students, organized in working groups, become familiar with topographic instruments and perform the pre-established measurement operations for the tests (14 hours).
- guided processing of the measurements, in which the calculations leading to the answers to the questions in the tests are carried out starting from the field observations (14 hours).
The activity is carried out individually by each student with the help of the software available for the Laboratory.
To carry out the elaborations the students will have to equip themselves with a personal notebook computer, while they will be provided with all the necessary software.
For each test a report must be drawn up by each student describing the methods and tools used for the test, the processing performed and the results expressed in numerical and graphical form when required.

Verification of learning

The exam is oral. It covers three topics, two relating to the Topography module and one relating to the Topography Laboratory.
The student must bring a copy of the reports carried out during the Laboratory activity. Reports on previous academic years are not accepted.
The student during the examination must treat each topic by demonstrating:
- knowledge of the theoretical topics included in the program
- ability to solve practical problems developed in the laboratory
- knowledge and communication skills through the appropriate use of the specific terms of the subject.
At the end of the exam a mark is assigned for the Topography module with weight 0.6 and a mark for the Laboratory with weight 0.4. The final grade is obtained as a weighted average of the Topography and Topography Laboratory marks.


G. Bezoari, A. Selvini, Manuale di Topografia moderna, Città studi Edizioni
G. Inghilleri; Topografia generale, UTET Torino
A. Cina, GPS Principi, modalità e tecniche di posizionamento, Ed. Celid
A. Cina, Dal GPS al GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) per la Geomatica - Torino - Celid
L. Biagi (2009) I Fondamentali del GPS, free download
A. Cina, Trattamento delle misure topografiche, Ed. Celid
Barzaghi, Pinto, Elementi di topografia e trattamento delle osservazioni Città Studi Edizioni

More Information

Other information and teaching material are available during the course in the e-learning area at https://elearning.unica.it/course/view.php?id=153

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