Teachings
70/0004M  PHYSICS 1
Academic Year 2022/2023
Free text for the University
 Professor

GIOVANNI LUIGI CARLO BONGIOVANNI (Tit.)
 Period

Second Semester
 Teaching style

Convenzionale
 Lingua Insegnamento

ITALIANO
Informazioni aggiuntive
Course  Curriculum  CFU  Length(h) 

[70/72] CIVIL ENGINEERING  [72/00  Ord. 2021] PERCORSO COMUNE  8  80 
[70/73] ENVIRONMENTAL AND LAND ENGINEERING  [73/00  Ord. 2020] PERCORSO COMUNE  8  80 
[70/77] CHEMICAL ENGINEERING  [77/00  Ord. 2020] PERCORSO COMUNE  8  80 
Objectives
This course of Physics 1 is a basic introduction to:
i) Elementary concepts of classical mechanics and thermodynamics;
ii) Conceptual schemes and tools to analyze physical phenomena (“problem solving”)
The course aims to provide the student with the physical knowledge and skills required to pursue the educational objectives for graduate studies in Engineering. More specifically, the expected learning outcomes are:
1) (Knowledge and understanding). Knowledge of the basic foundations of kinematics, dynamics, mechanical waves and thermodynamics and understanding of the related physical phenomena, with particular emphasis to those typical of Engineering.
2) (Applying knowledge and understanding). Capability of applying the acquired knowledge for solving elementary problems of kinematics and dynamics of the material point in one and two dimensions; kinematics and dynamics of the rigid body; equilibrium of the rigid body; mechanical waves (wave in a string and sound waves); thermodynamics (heat transmission, thermal and refrigerating machines, transformation of an ideal gas).
3) (Making judgments). Capability of selecting relevant information of a problem and of introducing suitable simplifications.
4) (Communication skills). Capability of describing physical phenomena of mechanics and thermodynamics through the use of a correct scientific terminology. Communication skills should allow the student to discuss with both expert and not experts in the field.
5) (Learning skills). Physical/mathematical conceptual skills necessary to deal with more advanced courses of Applied Physics and Engineering with a good degree of autonomy.
Prerequisites
Prerequisite skills and knowledge are those foreseen for the access test to the first year. More advanced mathematical tools will be provided by the course of mathematical analysis during the first semester.
Contents
1  Basic notions (3h)
Physical quantities. International system of units (SI). Length, time, mass. Dimensional analysis
2  Kinematics (8h+3h)
Motion. Position and displacement. Average velocity and average speed. Instantaneous velocity. Acceleration. Motion with constant acceleration. Freefall acceleration. Bidimensional motion. Projectile motion. Uniform circular motion: angular velocity, centripetal acceleration. Relative motion in two dimensions.
3  Dynamics (15h+5h)
Newton’s first law. Force. Mass. Newton’s second law. Some particular forces. Newton’s third law. Friction. Properties of friction. The drag force and terminal speed. Dynamics of uniform circular motion. Kinetics energy. Work. Work and kinetic energy. Work done by the gravitational force. Work done by a general variable force. Work done by a spring force. Power. Conservative forces and potential energy. Conservation of mechanical energy. Potential energy curves. Energy conservation. Centre of mass. Newton’s second law for a system of particles. Linear momentum. Linear momentum of a system of particles. Conservation of linear momentum. Systems with varying mass. Collision, impulse and linear momentum. Momentum and kinetic energy in collisions. Inelastic and elastic collisions.
4  Rotational dynamics (6h+2h)
Rotational variables and vectors. Rotation with constant angular acceleration. Kinetic energy of rotation. Rotational inertia. Newton’s second law for rotation. Work and rotational kinetic energy. Rolling. Angular momentum. Newton’s second law in angular form. Angular momentum of a system of particles. Angular momentum of a rigid body rotating about a fixed axis. Conservation of angular momentum. Requirements of equilibrium. Centre of gravity.
5 – Oscillations (6h+2h)
Oscillations. Simple harmonic motion. Energetics of harmonic motions. Simple pendulum. Physical pendulum. Damped simple harmonic motion. Forced oscillations and resonance.
6  Waves (9h+3h)
Transverse and longitudinal waves. Wavelength and frequency. Speed of a traveling wave. Wave speed on a stretched string. Energy and power of a wave traveling along a string. Principle of superposition for waves. Standing waves. Standing waves and resonance. Sound waves. Speed of sound. Interference. Intensity and sound level. Beats. Basic notions on complex waves.Doppler effect.
7  Thermodynamics (13h+5h)
Zeroth law of thermodynamics. Measuring temperature. Thermometric scales. Thermal expansion. Temperature and heat. Absorption of heat by solids and liquids. Heat and work. First law of thermodynamics. Some special cases of the first law of thermodynamics. Heat transfer mechanisms. Ideal gases. Pressure, temperature, and RMS speed. Molar specific heats of an ideal gas. Degrees of freedom and molar specific heats. Adiabatic expansion of an ideal gas. Carnot’s cycle. Irreversible and reversible processes. Entropy and second law of thermodynamics. Engines and refrigerators
Teaching Methods
Lectures will be prevalently held in classrooms, also integrated with
online teaching resources, by using specific online platforms
managed by the University of Cagliari.
The course structure is based on lectures and exercises.
Interactive lectures: "peer instruction". For each topic of the course, quizzes will be available in the digital moodle platform via any multimedia device. Moodle allows the students to get an online feedback on the correctness of the proposed solutions. In addition, the professor of the course has the possibility to achieve a prompt evaluation of the understanding level of all students.
 Additional help to students can be provided during the office hours, namely two hours a weak during the lecture semester and by appointment otherwise.
 Every weak, student must solve specific exercises concerning the topics addressed during the class lectures. Exercises can be solved at home by using the digital moodle platform. Further information can be exchanged also via the web site of the course (http://people.unica.it/giovannibongiovanni/) or via email.
The course is organized as follows:
Lectures: 60 hours
Recitations: 20 hours
Verification of learning
The final grade is given by assessing the written exam tests, homeworks and oral tests
Written tests
The exam can be taken in two ways.
i) Two written tests during the semester. The first at half semester (kinematics, dynamics of the single particle); the second after the end of the course (rotational dynamics, oscillations, wave, thermodynamics). The exam will consist in several numerical exercises, the formulation of which is thought to verify the actual knowledge and understanding of the student: a) Level of understanding of the text of the problem; b) Capability to describe the physic inherent to the problem; c) Capability to plan the solution; d) Capability to execute the plan; e) Capability to evaluate the consistency of the solution. In addition, the exercise on problem solving will also check the extent to which the student masters the scientific language to discuss the complexity of a physical problem.
ii) A single written test according to the official exam calendar. The exam will consist in several numerical exercises, the formulation of which is thought to verify the actual knowledge and understanding of the student: a) Level of understanding of the text of the problem; b) Capability to describe the physic inherent to the problem; c) Capability to plan the solution; d) Capability to execute the plan; e) Capability to evaluate the consistency of the solution. In addition, the exercise on problem solving will also check the extent to which the student masters the scientific language to discuss the complexity of a physical problem.
The single written test provides a further chance to students that did not passed or did not take the two tests during the semester. Student can ask to take an oral exam to improve the final rate.
Onlinehomework
Exercises carried out during the course via the moodle platform
Oral examination
An oral examination may be requested by the student if they wish to improve their final grade.
Criteria to rate the student tests
Written tests. The two tests can be rated with the maximum score of 12+12=24 points. Homework can provide an additional score of 3 points. The finale rate is the sum of the score obtained in the two tests and in the homework [(written tests+online homework+oral examination)/30]. If the total points (i+ii+iii) are greater than 30, the final mark is 30/30 cum laude.
Written tests. The single test can be rated with the maximum score of 24 points. Homework can provide an additional score of 3 points. The finale rate is the sum of the score obtained in the single written test, in the homework and oral examination. If the total points are greater than 30, the final mark is 30/30 cum laude.
In the possible oral exam, the gap in the student preparation, as resulting from the written test, will be further evaluated.
Texts
Main text:
1. Halliday, Resnick, Walker: Fondamenti di Fisica (Vol. MeccanicaTermologia oppure Volume unico), Ambrosiana.
Further auxiliary texts:
2. P.Mazzoldi, M.Nigro, C.Voci: Elementi di Fisica, ( Vol. MeccanicaTermodinamica e Vol. Onde), Edises.
3. J. Serway, Fisica Volume 1, Edises.
4. H.D. Young, R.A. Freedom, A. L. Ford: Principi di Fisica (vol. 1 Meccanica, Onde e Termodinamica) Pearson Italia
More Information
Illustrative experiments of kinematics, dynamics, oscillations, waves, thermodynamics; exam texts (http://people.unica.it/giovannibongiovanni/).
Useful information on Specific Impediments to Learning are available at http://corsi.unica.it/fisica/infodsa/