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Second Semester 
Teaching style
Lingua Insegnamento

Informazioni aggiuntive

Course Curriculum CFU Length(h)
[60/69]  CHEMICAL SCIENCES [69/00 - Ord. 2019]  PERCORSO COMUNE 6 48


The module has set as its goal to provide students with the following knowledge:
Introduction to environmental aspects in particular linked to the problems of climate change associated with anthropogenic energy consumption. In addition , students will gain basic knowledge on biofuels and renewable energy production.

The course provides students with application skills of methodological and theoretical environmental issues especially related to the production and consumption of fossil and renewable energy sources.

The course provides students with application skills on environmental issues especially related to the production and consumption of fossil and renewable energy sources.

The module has the aim of developing the ability to interpret information in a critical way, so knowing how to identify the appropriate way for its treatment or resolution.

The module aims to develop the ability to present in a concise and comprehensive a scientific topic in oral form.

The concepts and knowledge acquired by the students will have to give them the ability to apply their knowledge in the field of environmental chemistry and current issues such as production of renewable energy, and curiosity to explore these issues through self-study in specialized text books and scientific articles.

The module of Environmental organic Chemistry aims to provide an overview of principles of green chemistry taking care with particular attention to those most correlated with organic synthesis. At the end of the course, the student should possess the skills necessary to assess the impact of traditional summary on public health and the environment and suggest alternative "green" protocols according to class enucleated criteria.


Students must have knowledge about the following topics : a) basic knowledge of mathematics and physics ; b ) General and inorganic chemistry ; c) physical chemistry: energetic aspects of chemical reactions, chemical thermodynamics , chemical kinetics and catalysis .

students must have a good knowledge of basic organic chemistry, both about synthetic and reactivity aspects.


Energy and climate change. The greenhouse effect, the energy balance of the Earth, absorption by greenhouse gas: carbon dioxide, the absorption of infrared radiation, water vapor. Other greenhouse gases.Aerosols and climate changes. Aerosols and global warming, contributions to both natural and man-made warming.The energy sources, fossil fuels, coal, natural gas and propane as fuel, the shale gas, oil, CO2 emissions and global climate change. The storage and the reversible capture of CO2, the physical states of CO2, improving energy efficiency and reducing CO2 emissions. Biofuels: ethanol as a fuel, the production of bioethanol, bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass (II generation).Biodiesel: constituents, the conversion of plant material into biodiesel, the use of biodiesel in motor vehicles, greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions of biodiesel, biodiesel from fried waste oil, biodiesel II generation. Biodiesel from biocatalysis, reactions catalysed by lipases in non aqueous media, immobilization of lipases on porous supports, enzymatic activity, biocatalyst recycling.Biocatalysis in pharmaceutical industry, immobilization methods, ADH-HvADH, cofactor recycling, immobilization of enzymatic cascades, MOFs, enzymes in biosensensors, fundamentals of bioelectrochemistry. Biofuel cells, electrodes, noble metals vs enzymes, electrical energy from biofuel cells, how to read a CV, redox electrochemical reactions, reversible and irreversible reactions, GOX and BOD as anode and cathode, MET e DET, mediators. Waters: human, agricultural, industrial uses. Fresh water, surface water; redox chemistry of water; pollution of natural waters, thermal pollution; BOD and COD; water treatments; methods for water disinfection; Groundwaters and their contamination and decontamination. Waste water treatment by biological methods (aerobic and anaerobic); Heavy metals, toxicity, precipitation of heavy metals; Olive mill wastewaters, oxidation of phenolic compounds by biocatalysis (immobilized laccase). Adsorption of pollutants.

The course contents are aimed to provide students with general concepts for the development of synthetic protocols with low environmental impact. The concepts developed during the course will then be applied to specific models, comparing the traditional organic chemistry with green chemistry experiments. In the introductory part, we will argue some basic concepts such as the definition of eco-sustainable organic chemistry and we will take in analysis specific metric parameters such as "atom economy" and "E-factor". Drawing on the literature, we will analyse several examples of high and reduced atomic economy reactions. All of these examples will be classified within some key issues, such as:
a) use of green reagents in place of a very hazardous compounds; b) use of green solvents derived from natural sources; Ionic liquids (RTILs and DES); solventless reactions; c) redox reactions, new procedures; d) catalysed formation of C-C bonds and building blocks with high atom economy; e) Catalysis and green chemistry: homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis; f) alternative energy sources: mechanochemical, sonochemistry, photochemistry and microwave; g) renewable resources as raw material base for organic reactions.

Teaching Methods

The course consists of two modules of 24 hours each of lectures. It is planned to carry out numerical exercises in the classroom. For this purpose multimedia tools (computer and projector) and traditional (blackboard and chalk) will be used.

Verification of learning

The student assessment takes place on the judgment of an oral exam. The knowledge of the topics, the ability to link between different topics, the expressive capacity, the use of appropriate terminology, the ability to synthesize are evalued.

The examination is based on the discussion of a PPT presentation focused on the synthesis of a specific compound (freely choosen by the lecturer), describing various synthetic routes that highlight the environmentally aspects of the chosen synthetic protocols.

Final Judgement. For both modules the final mark takes into account several factors:
Quality of knowledge, ability, skills possessed and/or expressed:
a) appropriateness, accuracy and consistency of knowledge
b) appropriateness, accuracy and consistency of skills
c) appropriateness, accuracy and consistency of competences

Exposition mode:
a) expressive capacity;
b) Proper use of the specific language of the discipline;
c) logical and consequential capacity in the fitting of the contents;
e) Ability to connect different topics by finding common points and establish a coherent overall design, that is taking care of the structure, organization and logical connections to the exhibition's speech;
f) synthesis capacity including through the use of its symbolism of matter and the graphic expression of ideas and concepts, for example in the form of formulas, diagrams, equations.

relational qualities:
Availability to exchange and interaction with the teacher during the oral examination.

Personal qualities:
a) critical spirit;
b) self-assessment ability.

Consequently, the judgment can be:

a) Fair (18 to 20/30)
The candidate demonstrates little knowledge acquired, superficial level, many gaps. Expressive abilities modest, but still sufficient to support a coherent dialogue; logical capacity and consequentiality in the fitting of the subjects at elementary level; poor capacity for synthesis, lack of interaction with the teacher durations interview.
b) Moderate (21 to 23)
The applicant demonstrates a discreet acquisition of knowledge but lack of depth, with a few gaps; expressive abilities more than sufficient to support a coherent dialogue; acceptable mastery of the language of science, logical capacity and consequentiality in the fitting of the arguments of moderate complexity, more than enough capacity for synthesis and the ability to graphic expression acceptable.
c) Good (24 to 26)
The candidate demonstrates a rather large knowledge, moderate depth, with small gaps; satisfactory mastery of the expressive capabilities and significant scientific language; dialogical ability and critical thinking well detectable, good capacity for synthesis and ability to graphic expression more than acceptable.
d) Outstanding (27 to 29)
The candidate demonstrates a very extensive knowledge, well depth, with marginal gaps; remarkable powers of expression and high mastery of scientific language; remarkable capacity of dialogue, good competence and relevant aptitude for logic synthesis, high capacity for synthesis and graphic expression.
e) Excellent (30)
The candidate demonstrates a very extensive and in-depth knowledge, gaps irrelevant, high capacity and high mastery of the expressive language of science; excellent capacity of dialogue,aptitude to make connections between different subjects, excellent ability to synthesize and very familiar with the expression graphics.
The praise is attributed to the candidates clearly above average, and whose notional, expressive, conceptual, and logical limits, if any, as a whole are completely irrelevant.


- " Environmental Chemistry ", C. Baird, M. Cann, 5th English edition.

Green Organic Chemistry in Lectures and Laboratory; Andrew P.Dicks; CRC Press; ISBN-13: 978-1439840764.
Green Organic Chemistry: Strategies, Tools, and Laboratory Experiments; Kenneth M.Doxsee, James Hutchinson; Brooks/Cole; ISBN-13: 978-0534388515.

More Information

The teachers provides, in addition to the textbooks, the pdf Files of the power point presentations projected during the lectures.

Questionnaire and social

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