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Second Semester 
Teaching style
Lingua Insegnamento

Informazioni aggiuntive

Course Curriculum CFU Length(h)
[60/58]  CHEMISTRY [58/00 - Ord. 2017]  PERCORSO COMUNE 12 120


Aim of this course of Analytical Chemistry with Laboratory 2 is to provide the students with the fundamental knowledge of the basis of the electroanalytical and spectroscopic techniques. During the laboratory activities the students will acquire manual skills that will allow them to work independently with laboratory instrumentation and critically evaluate the analytical results.

Capacity: In the theoretical part of the course the student will be able to assess the analytical potential of the procedures learnt and to follow the laboratory experiences with awareness.
In the practical part the student will be able to verify the analytical potential of the various experimental techniques proposed.


The course is recommended for students who have passed the exams of the courses in Mathematics, Physics and Analytical Chemistry 1 with lab.


The course is divided into two parts:
Theory (6 cfu face-to face + 1cfu laboratory experiments and/or on field)
Laboratory experiments (3 CFU + 3 CFU face-to face)

Analytical Spectroscopy
Introduction to spectrophotometric methods. Components of optic instruments.
Atomic Spectroscopy. Introduction to optical atomic spectrometry. Atomic absorption and fluorescence spectrometry. Atomic emission spectrometry. Primary standards. Preparation of a calibration plot.
Molecular spectroscopy. Introduction to molecular absorption UV-vis spectrometry.
Applications of molecular absorption UV-vis spectrometry. Comparative methods: calibration curves. Job Method for determining the stoichiometry of a metal complex. Multiple addition method on samples of unknown matrix. Determination of the ionization constant of a weak acid characterized by different spectra of the two species. Evaluation and presentation of analytical results.

Electroanalytical Chemistry
Electrical conductivity of the solutions, equivalent conductivity and Kolrausch law;
Onsager equation, the conductimeter, conductivity cells, methods for the determination of the cell constant, maintenance and control instrumentation; Calculation of the conductivity of water from the knowledge of its composition. Errors in conductivity.
Laboratory experiments: Determination of cell constant and measurement of the conductivity of water samples Determination of acetylsalicylic acid in aspirin;

Electrodes and electrode potentials - the Nernst equation - Galvanic cells.
Reference electrodes for measuring pH. Ion-sensitive electrodes. Measurement of the activity and concentration, ionic strength and regulators related to the activity coefficient - pH measurement. Test of the relationship between potential and pH. Managementof the pH meter. Ion-sensitive electrodes: the fluoride ion sensitive electrode.
Errors in potentiometry. Maintenance and control of instrumentation, monitoring the efficiency of the electrodes;
Laboratory experiments: Check of linearity of E vs pH. Calibration of a pH-meter, Determination of carbonates in water: acid-base titration and application of the Gran plot. Ion-sensitive electrodes: Determination of fluoride content in a toothpaste;

Cyclic voltammetry:
Introduction to voltammetric techniques, operation of the potentiostat; maintenance of the electrodes, analytical applications of voltammetric measurements.

An introduction to GC-HPLC-CI-TLC and more common applications.

Portable instruments vs laboratory instruments: measurements to be performed on site.

Teaching Methods

We plan face-to-face teaching in the incoming A.A. 2021/ 2022, although we would like to retain new forms of teaching and aspects of online teaching, if they offer added value to traditional face-to-face teaching.

Lectures will be given with the support of power point presentations; in the last 10 minutes of the lecture, time for discussion or for the presentation of a case study is included usually allowed.
Students can contact the professor or the tutors outside the lecture or laboratory also via skype.
Groups of no more than 5 students are organized for the practical work in the lab. Cooperative learning is strongly encouraged.

Verification of learning

The grade of the final exam takes into account the following factors:
* Quality of knowledge, skills, skills possessed and / or manifested: appropriateness, correctness and congruence of knowledge, skills and competences
* Exposure mode: expressive capacity; Appropriate use of the specific language of the discipline; Logical capabilities and consequentiality in the connection of contents; Ability to link different topics by finding the common points and to establish a coherent general design, that is to say by taking care of the structure, organization and logical connections of the exposition; Ability to synthesis also through the use of the symbolism of the material and the graphic expression of notions and concepts, in the form, for example, of formulas, schemes, equations.
* Relational qualities: Availability to exchange and interaction with the teacher during the interview.
* Personal qualities: critical spirit; Self-assessment capacity.
The score of the exam is given by a score in thirtieths on the basis of the following learning evaluation scale:
a) SUFFICIENT (from 18 to 20/30)
The candidate demonstrates little knowledge acquired, superficial level, many gaps, modest expressive abilities, but still sufficient to sustain a coherent dialogue; logical skills and consequentiality in the connection of the elementary level topics; lack of synthesis capacity and ability to express graphic expression rather stunted; little interaction with the teacher during the interview.
b) DISCRETE (from 21 to 23)
The candidate demonstrates a discrete acquisition of concepts, but some shortcomings; more than enough expressive skills to support a coherent dialogue; acceptable mastery of scientific language; logical skills and consequentiality in the connection of the topics of moderate complexity; more than sufficient synthesis capacity and ability to express acceptable graphics.
c) GOOD (from 24 to 26)
The candidate demonstrates a rather broad baggage of notions, with small gaps; satisfying expressive abilities and significant mastery of scientific language; dialogic ability and critical spirit that can be easily detected; good ability to synthesis and ability to express graphics more than acceptable.
d) EXCELLENT (from 27 to 29)
The candidate demonstrates a wide range of notions, with few marginal gaps; remarkable expressive abilities and elevated mastery of the scientific language; remarkable dialogical ability, good competence and relevant aptitude for logical synthesis; high capacity for synthesis and graphic expression.
e) EXCELLENT (30) The candidate demonstrates a lot of extensive and in-depth knowledge; high expressive abilities and mastery of scientific language; excellent dialogic ability, a strong ability to make connections between different topics; excellent ability to synthesis and great familiarity with the graphic expression.
The score 30 cum laude is attributed to candidates clearly above the average, and whose notional, expressive, conceptual, logical limits are generally totally irrelevant.


D.A. Skoog, D. M. West e F. J. Holler, Fondamenti di Chimica Analitica, EdiSES, Napoli 2002.
D. H. Harris, Chimica Analitica Quantitativa, Zanichelli, 1991.
R. Cozzi, P. Protti e T. Ruaro, Analisi Chimica Strumentale vol. A, B, e C. Zanichelli, Bologna 1997
Opere di consultazione
D.A. Skoog e J. J. Leary, Chimica Analitica Strumentale, EdiSES, Napoli 2000
J.C.Miller and J.N.Miller, Statistics for Analytical Chemistry, Ellis Horwood Ltd., Chichester, 1988.

More Information

The course consists of lectures with the use of power point presentations and of laboratory experiments with numerical exercises for the presentation of the results.
The slides of the lectures are available with the handouts.

The material is available both in English and in Italian.

The instructions for the practical work, which will also contain questions aimed at stimulating the self-assessment tests, are distributed prior to the laboratory meetings. In addition to the planned experiments of the course, students wishing to do so may submit their project for the analysis of real samples.

Questionnaire and social

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