Teachings

Select Academic Year:     2016/2017 2017/2018 2018/2019 2019/2020 2020/2021 2021/2022
Professor
ELISABETTA ROMBI (Tit.)
Period
First Semester 
Teaching style
Convenzionale 
Lingua Insegnamento
 



Informazioni aggiuntive

Course Curriculum CFU Length(h)
[60/58]  CHEMISTRY [58/00 - Ord. 2017]  PERCORSO COMUNE 12 108

Objectives

Knowledge and understanding: the course aims to provide the basic knowledge of the understanding related to industrial chemistry, with particular reference to the principles of thermodynamics, kinetics, catalysis, and reaction mechanism, the knowledge of which has important consequences from the application point of view (management or innovation of industrial processes).
Applying knowledge and understanding: the student will be able (1) to apply his/her knowledge and understanding in the choice of an industrial reactor for the management of a given chemical process, as well as in the analysis of the most important industrial processes, both organic and inorganic, for the synthesis of intermediates commonly used in chemicals production, (2) to make the material and energy balances of simple processes, (3) to solve elementary problems of heat transfer and separation.
Making judgements:the student will be able to autonomously gather and interpret the scientific data derived from laboratory measurements and to carry out an experiment evaluating and quantifying the obtained results.
Communication skills: the student will be able to conduct experiments collaborating within a group and to draw up a report on the laboratory activities using the most common writing, graphics, and calculation softwares.
Learning skills: the student will develop the necessary skills to continue his/her studies with a high degree of autonomy. The achieved preparation can allow him/her to be inserted in various working areas.

Prerequisites

Knowledge of the concepts introduced in the first and second year courses of the Bachelor's degree in Chemistry, in particular: stoichiometry, chemical equilibrium, enthalpy and free energy, functional groups of organic chemistry and their reactivity.

Contents

Part I - Industrial Chemistry
Hints of thermodynamics and kinetics of a chemical reagent system. Theoretical models for calculating the reaction rate: collision theory and transition state theory. Reaction extent. Trend of reaction rate as a function of reaction extent and temperature for first-order irreversible, reversible endothermic, and reversible exothermic reactions.Variable order reactions. Parallel and consecutive reactions. Radical reactions. Steady-state assumption. Rate-determinig step assumption. The heterogeneous catalytic reactions (the different step involved in the kinetic). Kinetics of enzymatic reactions. Batch reactors and continuous-flow reactors. Performance equation for the Batch, CSTR and PFR reactors. Residence time and space -time.
Catalytic packed-bed PFR reactors:
- Isothermal operation: mass balance and design.
- Adiabatic operation: mass and enthalpy balance, and design.
- Non-isothermal/non-adiabatic operation design equations.
- Autothermal operation: design equations and stability.
Industrial Processes:
- Syngas: production from fossil fuels and biomass; uses.
- Methanol: production from syngas and uses.
- Ammonia: production from syngas and uses.

Part II- Industrial Chemistry Laboratory
General features and economic relevance of Industrial Chemistry. Conversion, selectivity, and yield of an industrial process.
Assessment of technical and economic feasibility of chemical reactions. Exercises.
Activity and selectivity of a catalyst. Homogeneous catalysis. Heterogeneous catalysis. Physical adsorption and chemisorption. Classification of heterogeneous catalysts. Solid acid catalysts.
Flow-sheets in industrial processes. Stoichiometry and mass balances in simple systems. The energy balance equation. Exercises. Heat transfer: heat and temperature. Nature of heat flow. Heat transfer by conduction. Steady flow of heat. Resistance to heat flow. Heat transfer by convection. Heat exchangers. Exercises.
Separation processes: features of the separation processes. Equilibrium separation. The separation factor and its relationship with the molecular properties. Selecting a separation process.
Distillation: reflux ratio and calculation of the number of plates in a column. Exercises.
Laboratory training:
- Use of gas chromatography for analytical determinations.
- Xylene isomers separation by fractional crystallization and distillation.
- Assessment of the acidity of a solid catalyst by the Benesi method.
- A case study of a catalytic reaction in liquid phase.
- Polymerization reactions: a) preparation of a linear polyester; b) preparation of a polyester mesh; c) nylon 6-6 synthesis; d) plexiglas synthesis; e) crosslinking of the polyvinilalcohol.
- Synthesis and characterization of a surfactant.

Teaching Methods

Part I - Industrial Chemistry
48 hours of lectures.
Due to the constantly evolving pandemic situation, teaching will be provided according to the procedures indicated by the University in compliance with current anti-COVID-19 regulations.

Part II - Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry
12 hours of lectures ; 12 hours of numerical exercises; 36 hours of laboratory training (performing experiments).
Due to the constantly evolving pandemic situation, access to the laboratory and experimental activities will take place according to the procedures indicated by the University in compliance with current anti-COVID-19 regulations.

Verification of learning

The Exam involves a written and an oral part. Due to the constantly evolving pandemic situation, exams will be held according to the procedures indicated by the University in compliance with current anti-COVID-19 regulations.
The written test consists of the resolution of six numerical exercises concerning: conversion, selectivity, and yield of reactions, material balance, heat transfer, and distillation column.
The oral exam addresses all the topics covered in the theory and laboratory modules, the discussion of the exercises performed during the written test and of the reports concerning the laboratory experiments. The final vote is expressed in thirtieths, also taking into account evaluation of the reports on the laboratory activities. To be admitted to the oral exam, the written test must be passed with a vote of at least 18/30. The written test is valid for one year.
The final vote takes into account several factors:
a) Expressive capacity;
b) Knowledge of the scientific language relevant to the course;
c) Baggage of notions possessed;
d) Ability to link notions and place them within a logical framework;
e) Ability to connect different frameworks by finding common points and establish a coherent general pattern;
f) Ability to express notions and concepts graphically, for example in the form of formulas, schemes, equations.
Consequently, judgment can be:
a) Sufficient (from 18 to 20/30)
The candidate demonstrates modest expressive abilities, but sufficient to support a coherent dialogue. Few acquired notions, superficial level, many shortcomings, and elementary level conceptual links. Graphic expression capacity rather stunted;
b) Fair (from 21 to 23)
The candidate demonstrates more than sufficient expressive skills to support a consistent dialogue. Acceptable mastery of scientific language. Discreet level of notions acquisition, but little depth, few failures, and conceptual links of moderate complexity. Acceptable graphical expression capacity;
c) Good (from 24 to 26)
The candidate shows satisfying expressive abilities and significant mastery of scientific language. Baggage of notions rather broad, moderate deepening, with small shortcomings. Dialogic capacity and critical spirit clearly evident. More than acceptable graphic expression ability;
d) Optimum (from 27 to 29)
The candidate demonstrates remarkable expressive abilities and a high mastery of scientific language. Baggage of notions very extensive, well detailed, with marginal failures. Remarkable dialogic ability, good competence and remarkable aptitude for logical synthesis. High graphical expression ability;
e) Excellent (30)
The candidate demonstrates high expressive skills and a high command of scientific language. Baggage of very extensive and in-depth notions, no significant shortcomings. Excellent dialogic ability, marked ability to establish connections between different topics. Great familiarity with graphic expression.
Praise is attributed to candidates clearly above the average, and whose possible expressive, notional, conceptual and logical limits are, on the whole, totally irrelevant.

Texts

Part I
Suggested texts
1).Carrà, M. Morbidelli "Chimica Fisica Applicata", Hoepli
2)O. Levenspiel "Ingegneria delle Reazioni Chimiche", Ambrosiana.
3)M.Coulson, F.Richardson’s "Chemical Engineering" vol. 3 (J.F. Richardson and D.G. Peacock, eds.), Pergamon.
Texts for insights
1) L.Marrelli " Reattori Chimici " Vol.I,II, Efesto
2) V. Petrone" L’industria chimica", Siderea

Part II
Suggested texts
1)C.A. Clausen, G. Mattson " Principles of Industrial Chemistry" John Wiley and Sons
Texts for insights
1)S.Natoli,M.Calatozzolo "Tecnologie Chimiche Industriali" vol I,II,III, Edisco
2)R.Cozzi, P.Protti,T. Ruaro “ Analisi Chimica" Vol.1 Cap. 17 - Zanichelli
3) Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, VCH

More Information

The students have at their disposal:
slides of the lectures;
examples of the numerical exercises with solutions;
photocopies provided by the teacher and/or documentation available on websites on the recommendation of the teacher.

Questionnaire and social

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