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Second Semester 
Teaching style
Lingua Insegnamento

Informazioni aggiuntive

Course Curriculum CFU Length(h)
[60/76]  BIOTECHNOLOGY [76/20 - Ord. 2018]  Farmaceutico 5 40


The course aims to provide:
- the ability of describing the apparatuses and organs of the human body at both macroscopic and microscopic level, in an understandable and unambiguous way, using the correct terminology
- the basic knowledge of the relationship between the morphologic and functional organization of the human body, necessary for understanding the pathological alterations and clinical manifestations.

Knowledge and understanding:
to acquire the knowledge of the morphological and structural organization of the human body, useful for the analysis of the correlation between structure and function.

Applying knowledge and understanding:
to acquire the ability to distinguish different organs at macroscopic and microscopic level, also in relation to the development of pharmaceutical products.

Making judgements:
- to be able to integrate the knowledge of the single apparatuses to understand and describe their functional interaction
- the ability of making judgements will be achieved during the course by independent and guided activities, aimed to help the students in correctly describing the anatomical structures and in the self-assessment of the understanding and learning of the didactic units.

Communication skills:
to be able to efficiently discuss about anatomical structures, at both macroscopic and microscopic level, in an appropriate and autonomous way, using the correct anatomical terminology and, when necessary, using schemes and graphical representations.

Learning skills:
to be able to read, understand and summarize the content of advanced textbooks of academic level, also aiming to the continuous updating and improvement of the specific knowledge.


In order to easily understand the content of the course, a basic knowledge of Cytology and Histology will be useful.



General Anatomy:
principles of anatomical terminology, structural organization of the human body. Anatomical position of reference, lines and planes of the body, body cavities, hollow and parenchymatous organs.

Locomotor Apparatus:
Osteology: overview on the axial (skull, backbone, sternum, ribs) and appendicular (pectoral and pelvic girdle, upper and lower limb) skeleton. Joints: morphofunctional characterization and classification of the joints. Overview on the muscular system: morphofunctional characterization and classification of skeletal muscles.

Integumentary Apparatus:
overview on skin and its appendages.

Nervous System:
Central Nervous System. Spinal cord, brainstem, cerebellum, diencephalon, telencephalon, basal ganglia. Organization of the white and grey matter. Meninges of the brain and spinal cord. Ventricular system, choroid plexuses and liquor.
Peripheral Nervous System. Nerves (spinal, cranial, splanchnic) and ganglia (spinal, cranial, autonomic). Overview on sensitivity, sensory receptors, sense organs, ascending and descending nervous pathways.
Autonomic Nervous System. Overview on the organization and function of the sympathetic and parasympathetic vegetative nervous system.

Cardiovascular Apparatus:
heart and pericardium. Systemic and pulmonary blood circulation: main arteries and veins. Portal systems. Rete mirabile in the kidney and liver. Overview on the histological structure of arteries, veins and capillaries. Lymphatic System: overview on lymphatic circulation and lymphoid organs.

Respiratory Apparatus:
respiratory airways (nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi) and lungs: macroscopic and microscopic morphology, vascularization. Pleurae.

Digestive Apparatus:
oral cavity, salivary glands, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, intestine, liver, pancreas: macroscopic and microscopic morphology, vascularization. The peritoneal cavity.

Urinary Apparatus:
kidneys and urinary tract (ureter, urinary bladder, male and female urethra): macroscopic and microscopic morphology, vascularization. The nephron and juxtaglomerular apparatus.

Male reproductive system:
testis, genital pathways, accessory glands: macroscopic and microscopic morphology, vascularization.
Female reproductive system:
ovary, uterine tubes, uterus: macroscopic and microscopic morphology, vascularization. Ovarian and menstrual cycle.

Endocrine System:
overview on endocrine glands, hormones, diffuse endocrine system.

Teaching Methods

study of all the organs and apparatuses of the human body from the morphological, topographical, structural and functional point of view.
Lectures will be delivered in-person in the classroom, supplemented and “improved” by online teaching strategies, aiming to grant an innovative and inclusive access.

Verification of learning

Verification of learning consists of an oral examination. The students will have to efficiently discuss about some topics of human anatomy, proposed by the teacher, using where necessary schemes and graphical representations.
In order to pass the exam, students will have to prove that they acquired:
- the knowledge of the topics covered by the lectures (ability of describing the anatomical structures at a morphological, topographical, microscopic and functional level)
- the ability of integrating the acquired topics and the capacity of synthesis
- the ability of speaking and using the correct anatomical terminology.
The exam score will be expressed in thirtieths and will take account of the knowledge and skills acquired by the student, and in particular of the answers to the topics proposed during the oral exam, for each of which at least an elementary knowledge must be demonstrated.
Details on the elements that contribute to the identification of the minimum level for the achievement of sufficiency (18/30) are as follows. Consequently, the judgement can be:
a) Sufficient (18/30 to 20/30)
The candidate demonstrates little acquisition of theoretical knowledge, superficial level, many gaps. Modest communicative abilities, but still sufficient to support a coherent dialogue, logical capacity and consequentiality in fitting the subjects of elementary level; poor capacity of synthesis and rather stunted ability of graphical expression, scanty interaction with the teacher during the interview.
b) Moderate (21/30 to 23/30)
The candidate demonstrates a moderate acquisition of knowledge but lack of expatiation, a few gaps; communicative abilities more than sufficient to support a coherent dialogue; acceptable mastery of the scientific language, logical capacity and consequentiality in fitting the topics of moderate complexity, good enough capacity of synthesis and acceptable ability of graphical expression.
c) Good (24/30 to 26/30)
The candidate demonstrates a rather large wealth of knowledge, moderate in-depth, with small gaps; satisfactory mastery of the communicative abilities and meaningful scientific language; dialogical ability and critical thinking well detectable, good capacity of synthesis and more than acceptable ability of graphical expression.
d) Outstanding (27/30 to 29/30)
The candidate demonstrates a very extensive wealth of notions, high in-depth, with marginal gaps; remarkable ability in communicating and high mastery of scientific language; remarkable dialogical capacity, good competence and relevant aptitude for logical synthesis, high capacity of synthesis and graphical expression.
e) Excellent (30/30)
The candidate demonstrates a wealth of very extensive and in-depth knowledge, irrelevant gaps, high capacity and high mastery of scientific language; excellent dialogical ability and marked aptitude to make connections among different topics, excellent ability to synthesize and very familiar with the graphical expression.

The maximum score cum laude is attributed to the candidates which demonstrate an excellent knowledge on all the topics covered by the lectures and whose notional, expressive, conceptual, logical limits, if any, are completely irrelevant.


Recommended textbooks (one of the following):

Arcuri et al. ANATOMIA UMANA. ELEMENTI. Edi-Ermes
Bentivoglio et al. ANATOMIA UMANA E ISTOLOGIA. Edizioni Minerva Medica

More Information

Supplementary teaching materials:
- slides projected during lectures
- anatomical models (available for study at the Macroscopy Library)
- books/atlas of Anatomy and Microscopic Anatomy (available for consultation at the Biomedical Library)

Student reception:
the teacher receives the students for supplementary explanations, after appointment by telephone or by e-mail.
The supplementary teaching activities and student reception will be possible by remote interaction with available online resources.

Murtas Daniela murtas@unica.it Department of Biomedical Sciences, Section of Cytomorphology, Cittadella Universitaria, Monserrato (CA) - Tel. 0039 070 6754061-6754006

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