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Second Semester 
Teaching style
Lingua Insegnamento

Informazioni aggiuntive

Course Curriculum CFU Length(h)
[60/76]  BIOTECHNOLOGY [76/10 - Ord. 2018]  Industriale e Ambientale 6 56


Classes will be focused also on the molecular and genetic mechanisms involved in the pharmacological resistance and the importance of SNP as well as other polymorphisms in this phenomenon.
The course will also address for the use of techniques such as PCR and possible fields of application such as the genotyping of knock-out animals for a particular protein of interest.


Background in genetics, molecular biology and pharmacology is requested. Theoretical knowledge of molecular biology, chemistry lab, biochemistry, pharmacology, neuron structure and function and the main neurotransmission systems.
Basic knowledge of laboratory (practice): use of serological pipettes and micropipettes, solutions (molarity, normality) and conversion of unit measure.


Introduction to the course.
Principles of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and cellular and molecular pharmacology.
o Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics
Pharmacogenomics and objectives of pharmacogenomics
Investigation methods used for the study of pharmacogenetic disorders (clinical observations, family and twin studies).
Classification and description of some pharmacogenetic disorders (succinylcholine apnea, acetylation polymorphism, increased susceptibility to drug hemolysis, C21-hydroxylase polymorphism).
o Pharmacological regulation of transcription.
Drugs that modify gene transcription.
Non-specific inhibitors of gene transcription (antibiotics and purine and pyrimidine analogues).
Specific inhibitors (aspirin, cyclosporins and immunosuppressive drugs). Mechanism and sites of action (promoters, polymerases and transcription factors) of these drugs in the regulation of transcription.
New therapeutic approaches that exploit the molecular knowledge of pathologies to design new drugs. General aspects, definitions, mechanisms of action, targets and application strategies.
o Pharmacological regulation of translation.
Drugs that interfere with translation.
Protein synthesis inhibitors in prokaryotes (aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, chloramphenicol) and in eukaryotes (puromycin). Mechanism and sites of action (RNA molecules, initiation sites, ribosomes, amino acids, mRNA stability) of these drugs in the regulation of translation.
o Bioinformatics and principles of bioethics.
Principles of bioinformatics. Definition and purposes of bioinformatics, human genome and databases.
Bioethics, skills, guidelines.

Teaching Methods

Class teaching, practical examples in the laboratory, use of informatics’ tools, as well as journal clubs with critical analysis of scientific publications mentioned during the course.

Verification of learning

Oral examination, discussion of scientific papers and techniques learned during the classes.
Final outcome of the examination
Final score is established based on the following factors:
Quality of knowledge, ability, and competence possessed and/or shown:
a) Appropriate, correct, and coherent knowledge
b) Appropriate, correct, and coherent ability
c) Appropriate, correct, and coherent competence
Expositive capacity
a) Verbal capacity;
b) Appropriate use of language specific of the discipline;
c) Logic capability and ability to connect concepts together;
d) Capability of connecting different arguments through the use of common points and making a general coherent scheme, with logic links;
e) Capability of synthesis, using formulas, schemes, and equations.
Interpersonal quality:
Interaction with the teacher during the examination.
Personal quality:
a) Critical spirit
b) Capacity of self-evaluation

As a consequence, final score can be:
a) Sufficient (from 18 to 20/30)
Candidate shows a limited amount of acquired notions, mostly at a superficial level, and with many gaps; modest expressive capacity, but nonetheless sufficient to hold a coherent speech; logic capacity and elementary capacity in connecting different subjects; poor capacity of summarizing and poor capacity of graphic expression; poor interaction with the teacher during the oral examination.
b) Discreet (from 21 to 23/30)
Candidate shows a discreet amount of acquired knowledge, but at a superficial level, and only few gaps; the expressive capacity is more than sufficient in order to hold a coherent speech; he/she possesses a good scientific language, and moderate logic capacity in interconnecting different arguments; capacity of synthesis and graphic expression is more than sufficient.
c) Good (from 24 to 26/30)
Candidate shown a quite wide body of knowledge, although moderate in depth, with still some gaps; expressive capacity is satisfactory and relevant the quality of the scientific language; good verbal expression and critical spirit; good capacity of summarizing and graphic expression.
d) Excellent (from 27 to 29/30)
Candidate has acquired an extensive body of in-depth knowledge, with some marginal gaps; very high verbal capacity and high level scientific language; high critical spirit and excellent capacity of summarizing and graphic expression.
e) Outstanding (30/30)
Candidate proves to possess an extensive body of in-depth knowledge, with some irrelevant gaps; excellent verbal capacity and highly appropriate scientific language; excellent capacity to relate and integrate different arguments; excellent capacity of synthesis and graphic expression.
f) Laude
Laude is attributed to candidate well above average, with eventual gaps that are irrelevant.


1) Le basi farmacologiche della terapia, Goodman Gilman, McGraw-Hill
2) Farmacologia, meccanismi d’azione dei farmaci, Prat e Taylor, Zanichelli
3) Bioetica e biotecnologie, questioni morali nell’era biotech, Marchesini, Apeiron
4) Pharmacogenetics, Weber; Oxford
5) Pharmacogenimics, Kalow, Mwyer, Tendale, Marcel Dekker
Genomics, proteomics & bioinformatics, Campbell & Heyer; CSHL Press

More Information

Papers, books, ppt presentations in printed version and laboratory material for the practical classes in the labs.

Questionnaire and social

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