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Second Semester 
Teaching style
Lingua Insegnamento

Informazioni aggiuntive

Course Curriculum CFU Length(h)
[60/76]  BIOTECHNOLOGY [76/10 - Ord. 2018]  Industriale e Ambientale 8 76


The course aims to produce graduates of Level I with a solid basic knowledge of the biology of microorganisms, their role in the environment and employment potential in the various fields of research. These skills are indispensable preconditions for further study in specific Magistral and / or professionalizing Master courses .

Knowledge and understanding:
The special features of the structure, metabolism, physiology and molecular biology of prokaryotes and viruses, understanding differences and similarities with the Eucharistic microorganisms, as well as fundamental aspects of their interactions with higher organisms and the environment. Understand the importance of advancement of knowledge on the biology of microorganisms for the continued development of microbiological biotechnology.

Application capabilities:
The knowledge of the biology of bacteria and viruses provide basic skills to acquire basic application capabilities methodological, procedural and instrumental of microbiology laboratories, both in diagnostic and experimental.

Making judgments:
The main knowledge from different fields of microbiology are transmitted to students exemplifying the specific experimental evidence, stimulating the individual reasoning and collective discussion on the scientific method and critical evaluation of the results.

Communication skills:
The use of scientific language appropriate and proper microbiological terminology will enable the acquisition of communication skills and ability to convey a clear and precise microbiology topics.

Learning skills:
The knowledge of anatomy, biochemistry, physiology and molecular biology of bacteria and viruses, their role in the environment, the relations established with their guests, and the potential for their use in different fields of biomedical research and biotechnology, are acquired by exercising reworking of the lectures content with those of textbooks.


Adequate knowledge of Inorganic Chemistry, Organic Chemistry, Cytology, Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Genetics.


Class lessons (5 CFU =40 hours)

Structures and functions in microorganisms. Composition, structure and distinctive elements of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Diversity of eukaryotic microorganisms. Structure and function of the cytoplasmic membrane of prokaryotes. The Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria: general characteristics. Structure and synthesis of peptidogicano. The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria: lipopolysaccharide and porins. The cytoplasmic organelles. The flagella, pili, fimbriae. The capsule and mucous layers. The bacterial endospore: structure and biological significance.

Metabolism, nutrition and growth in prokaryotes.
Key aspects of metabolic diversity and microbial nutrition. Influence of temperature, pH and pressure on bacterial growth. The growth curve. The process of cell division in bacteria. The control of bacterial growth. Antibiotics.

Molecular biology and bacterial genetics.
Organization of genetic material in prokaryotes: the bacterial chromosome and plasmids. The process of replication, transcription and translation in bacteria. Mechanisms of recombination and genetic exchange among bacteria: genetic transformation, phage transduction, conjugation. The F factor and HFR cells.

Biocommunication of the prokaryotic cell.
Environment and hosts. The process of chemotaxis. Host-parasite relationships: the microbial flora; major pathogenic mechanisms of bacteria. The bacterial endotoxin and exotoxins.

Elements of Virology.
General characteristics, structure and classification of animal and bacterial viruses. Viral replication in bacteria of virulent and temperate phages; lytic and lysogenic cycle. Models of replication of DNA and RNA animal viruses.

Molecular systematics and microbial evolution.
The early Earth and the origin of life. The microbial evolution.

Principles of Immunology: Cells and organs of the immune system. The non-specific immunity. The specific immune response. Antigens, T cells and cellular immunity. Antibodies and Immunity.

Laboratory (3 CFU = 36 hours)

Principles for the cultivation of bacteria and viruses in the laboratory. Preparation and sterilization of culture media for the isolation of bacteria from samples. Preparation of a smear from a bacterial culture, staining and observation under the light microscope. Methods for quantitation of bacterial cells. Susceptibility testing of bacteria to antibiotics.

Teaching Methods

The course consists in lectures (5 CFU = 40 hours) involving the use of PowerPoint presentations and laboratory exercises (3 CFU = 36 hours) that consist in the application of microbiological and virological methods.
During the lectures, verification tests will be carried out to monitor the real learning of the students during the course.
Teaching will be delivered in person. The lessons can be integrated with audiovisual materials and streaming.

Verification of learning

Oral examination. The student will discuss orally a few different topics proposed by the teacher, using, where necessary, schemes / graphic representations. Knowledge of the topics of the course, the ability to link between different topics, the expressive capacity, the use of appropriate terminology, the ability to synthesize will be evaluated. The final grade takes into account several factors:
Quality of the knowledge, skills and competences:
a) appropriateness, accuracy and consistency of knowledge
b) appropriateness, accuracy and consistency of skills
c) appropriateness, accuracy and consistency of competences
Exposition mode:
a) Capacity of expression;
b) Proper use of the specific language of the discipline;
c) Logical capacity and consequentiality in the fitting of the contents;
d) Ability to connect different arguments by finding the common points and establish a consistent overall design, i.e. taking care of structure, organization and logical connections of speech exposition;
e) Ability to summarize.
Relational qualities:
Capability to exchange and interact with the teacher during the interview.
Personal qualities:
a) critical spirit;
b) ability to self-evaluation.

Consequently, the judgment can be:
a) Fair (18 to 20/30)
The candidate demonstrates little knowledge acquired, superficial level, many gaps. Expressive abilities modest, but still sufficient to support a coherent dialogue; logical capacity and consequentiality in the fitting of the subjects at elementary level; poor capacity for synthesis, lack of interaction with the teacher durations interview.
b) Moderate (21 to 23)
The applicant demonstrates a discreet acquisition of knowledge but lack of depth, with a few gaps; expressive abilities more than sufficient to support a coherent dialogue; acceptable mastery of the language of science, logical capacity and consequentiality in the fitting of the arguments of moderate complexity, more than enough capacity for synthesis and the ability to graphic expression acceptable.
c) Good (24 to 26)
The candidate demonstrates a rather large knowledge, moderate depth, with small gaps; satisfactory mastery of the expressive capabilities and significant scientific language; dialogical ability and critical thinking well detectable, good capacity for synthesis and ability to graphic expression more than acceptable.
d) Outstanding (27 to 29)
The candidate demonstrates a very extensive knowledge, well depth, with marginal gaps; remarkable powers of expression and high mastery of scientific language; remarkable capacity of dialogue, good competence and relevant aptitude for logic synthesis, high capacity for synthesis and graphic expression.
e) Excellent (30)
The candidate demonstrates a very extensive and in-depth knowledge, gaps irrelevant, high capacity and high mastery of the expressive language of science; excellent capacity of dialogue, aptitude to make connections between different subjects, excellent ability to synthesize and very familiar with the expression graphics.
The praise is attributed to the candidates clearly above average, and whose notional, expressive, conceptual, and logical limits, if any, as a whole are completely irrelevant.


• Madigan M.T., Martinko J.M., Bender K.S., Buckley D.H., Stahl D.A. Brock Biologia dei Microrganismi. Casa Editrice Pearson.
• Gianni Dehò e Enrica Galli. Biologia dei Microrganismi. Casa Editrice Ambrosiana.

More Information

During the course, lecture notes relating to the part of the laboratory to be carried out will be delivered to the students.

Questionnaire and social

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