Teachings

Select Academic Year:     2017/2018 2018/2019 2019/2020 2020/2021 2021/2022 2022/2023
Professor
ENRICO SANNA (Tit.)
EZIO LACONI
MONICA DEIANA
Period
Annual 
Teaching style
Convenzionale 
Lingua Insegnamento
ITALIANO 



Informazioni aggiuntive

Course Curriculum CFU Length(h)
[60/76]  BIOTECHNOLOGY [76/20 - Ord. 2018]  Farmaceutico 11 88

Objectives

Module of GENERAL PATHOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY
KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING
The aim of the General Pathology and Immunology module is to enable students to understand the basis of pathological processes, focusing on: cellular and molecular mechanisms of etiopathogenesis; mechanisms of neoplastic transformation; the activation of the immune system as a defense mechanism for the protection of organism integrity and identity.
APPLICATION CAPABILITIES
The knowledge acquired during this module will allow the students to understand fundamental mechanisms of human pathology, studying risk factors of main diseases and the effects of cell and tissue homeostasis perturbation, in order to formulate hypotheses and actions for its modulation.
JUDGMENT AUTONOMY
The students will acquire the ability to critically analyze data from scientific literature or direct experimental experience. Moreover, they will be able to utilize the acquired knowledge to deal with scientific problems pertaining to human pathology.
ABILITY TO LEARN
Besides in person classes and textbooks, students will be introduced to several resources and tools that will allow them to acquire independent ability to scour the scientific literature in order to actively acquire further knowledge in Pathology and Immunology.
COMMUNICATION SKILLS
Students will acquire the appropriate biomedical terminology to efficiently communicate and interact with other professional figures in the field.

Module of PHARMACOLOGY OF BIOTECHNOLOGICAL DRUGS
KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING
The course offers an updated and detailed discussion of the main biotechnological drugs and innovative forms of therapy, their molecular mechanism of action, their pharmacological effects, and their use in the treatment of specific diseases, including genetic ones. Particular emphasis will be placed on describing the most innovative aspects of the application of molecular biotechnologies to clinical and pre-clinical pharma-cology.
APPLICATION CAPABILITIES
The course provides the student with methodological application skills for evaluating the therapeutic ac-tion of various biotechnological drugs and innovative forms of therapy, such as gene therapy. The student will have to consolidate their knowledge and use of scientific language as well as experimental investiga-tion methods.
JUDGMENT AUTONOMY
The course will provide the student with the fundamental knowledge bases for a better understanding of the vast innovative potential of the applications of molecular biotechnologies to pharmacological research and the therapy of multiple diseases. The set of notions learned will constitute a solid knowledge base that integrates and completes the understanding of the concepts taught in other courses.
ABILITY TO LEARN
The knowledge acquired during the course will allow the student to possess sufficient knowledge to be able to critically and independently evaluate, in the light of the molecular mechanisms of action and the pharmacological effects at the base of biotechnological drugs, the scientific literature, national and inter-national, relating to discipline.
COMMUNICATION SKILLS
Students must have a satisfactory ability to communicate orally and / or in writing and with outlines the concepts acquired through the use of correct scientific terminology.

Prerequisites

Module of GENERAL PATHOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY
It is suggested to pass the exams of Cytology and Histology, Anatomy and Physiology.

Module of PHARMACOLOGY OF BIOTECHNOLOGICAL DRUGS
It is suggested to pass the exams of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and General Pharmacology.

Contents

Module of GENERAL PATHOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY (6 CFU, 48 hours)
- Course introduction: etiology, pathogenesis, and various aspects of disease
- Perturbation of homeostasis and cellular adaptations: hyperplasia, hypertrophy, metaplasia.
- Cell cycle and control mechanisms of proliferations
- Cell damage and death: molecular mechanisms of necrosis and apoptosis
- Introduction to the immune system
- Acute and chronic inflammation
- Healing, repair, and regeneration
- Hemostasis and Thrombosis
- Mechanisms of immune activation: innate and adaptive response
- Biological and molecular bases of neoplastic disease: oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, mechanisms of growth and diffusion
- Pathogenetic basis of type 1 and type 2 diabetes and complications
- Atherosclerosis, risk factors, plaque pathogenesis


Module of PHARMACOLOGY OF BIOTECHNOLOGICAL DRUGS (5 CFU, 40 hours)
- Introduction to the course. Biotechnology and drug development. Biotechnological innovations in Pharmacology. Principles of Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics.
- Application of genetic engineering in Pharmacology. Recombinant DNA technology. Cellular genetic engineering for drug-protein production. Animal genetic engineering. Transgenic, cell-specific, and conditional knock-in and knock-out mice.
- Biotechnological drugs of a protein nature. Biochemical properties relevant to therapeutic efficacy. Therapeutic protein engineering. Prolongation of the plasma half-life of proteins.
- Monoclonal antibodies and antibody derivatives. Structure of antibodies. Activity and recycling of antibodies. Biotechnological synthesis of antibodies. Chimeric, humanized and fully human monoclonal antibodies. Changes in antibodies. Antibody engineering. Uses of antibodies and antibody derivatives in the biomedical field.
- Oligonucleotides as drugs for gene expression silencing. Antisense to DNA or RNA, siRNA, ribozymes, antigene, aptamers, decoy of transcription factors. Gene editing. Artificial nuclease systems: zinc fingers and TALENs. CRISPR/Cas9 system.
- Advanced biotechnological therapies. Gene therapy: ex vivo and in vivo; viral and non-viral vectors.
- Biotechnological drugs with an epigenetic mechanism.
- Immunopharmacology of tumors.
- Immunosuppressant drugs.
- Treatment of autoimmune diseases
- Biotechnological drugs for the cardiovascular, central nervous, endocrine, and respiratory systems.

Teaching Methods

Teaching will be delivered mainly face to face, integrated and "augmented" with online strategies, in or-der to ensure its use in an innovative and inclusive way. The course will take place with lectures that in-volve the use of PowerPoint presentations. During the course, the teacher will use interactive computer platforms in class to allow an ongoing assessment of the students' degree of learning. The teacher will provide supplementary texts and / or updated scientific publications on the topic of the lesson from time to time.

Verification of learning

An intermediate test is foreseen in the form of an oral or written test. The final exam is in the form of an oral interview and is aimed at verifying the degree of learning with questions relating to the different parts of the program.
EVALUATION CRITERIA FOR LEARNING ASSESSMENT
Final judgement
The final grade takes into account several factors:
Quality of the knowledge, skills, competences:
a) appropriateness, accuracy and consistency of knowledge
b) appropriateness, accuracy and consistency of abilities
c) appropriateness, accuracy and consistency of ability to apply knowledge and understanding
Communication skills:
a) Ability of expression;
b) Proper use of the specific language of the discipline;
c) Logical skills and inherent consequentiality in communicating;
d) Ability to connect different subjects by finding the common points and establish a consistent overall design, i.e. taking care of structure, organization and logical connections of speech;
f) Ability to summarize also through the use of specific symbolism of each discipline and graphic expression of ideas and concepts, for example in form of formulas, schemes, equations.
Relational qualities:
Availability to exchange and interact with the teacher during the interview.
Personal qualities:
a) critical thinking;
b) ability of self-evaluation.
Consequently, the judgment can be:
a) Sufficient (from 18 to 20/30)
The candidate demonstrates little acquisition of theoretical knowledge, superficial level, many gaps. Modest communicative abilities, but still sufficient to support a coherent dialogue, logical capacity and consequentiality in fitting the subjects of elementary level; poor capacity of synthesis and rather stunted ability of graphical expression, scanty interaction with the teacher during the interview.
b) Moderate (21 to 23)
The applicant demonstrates a moderate acquisition of knowledge but lack of expatiation, a few gaps; communicative abilities more than sufficient to support a coherent dialogue; acceptable mastery of the scientific language, logical capacity and consequentiality in fitting the subjects of moderate complexity, good enough capacity of synthesis and acceptable ability of graphical expression.
c) Good (24 to 26)
The candidate demonstrates a rather large wealth of knowledge, moderate in-depth, with small gaps; satisfactory mastery of the communicative abilities and meaningful scientific language; dialogical ability and critical thinking well detectable, good capacity of synthesis and more than acceptable ability of graphical expression.
d) Outstanding (27 to 29)
The candidate demonstrates a very extensive wealth of notions, high in-depth, with marginal gaps; remarkable ability in communicating and high mastery of scientific language; remarkable dialogical capacity, good competence and relevant aptitude for logical synthesis, high capacity of synthesis and graphical expression.
e) Excellent (30)
The candidate demonstrates a wealth of very extensive and in-depth knowledge, irrelevant gaps, high capacity and high mastery in communicating through the scientific language; excellent dialogical ability and marked aptitude to make connections among different subjects, excellent ability to synthesize and very familiar with the graphical expression.
Laude is attributed to the candidates clearly above average, and whose notional, expressive, conceptual, logical limits, if any, as a whole are completely irrelevant.

Texts

Module of GENERAL PATHOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY
- Pontieri, ELEMENTI DI PATOLOGIA GENERALE. Piccin, 2018
- Rubin, PATOLOGIA GENERALE. Piccin, 2014
- Abbas, Immunologia Cellulare e Molecolare, Edra, 2018

Module of PHARMACOLOGY OF BIOTECHNOLOGICAL DRUGS
- E Vegeto, A Maggi, P Minghetti, FARMACI BIOTECNOLOGICI. Aspetti farmacologici e clinici. CEA ed. 2020.
- Goodman & Gillman, Le basi farmacologiche della terapia. 13° ed Zanichelli 2019
- ML Calabrò, Compendio di BIOTECNOLOGIE FARMACEUTICHE. EdiSES, 2008
- DJA Crommelin, RD Sindelar, B Meibohm, Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, 5th ed. Springer
- BR Glick, JJ Pasternak, CL Pattern, Molecular Biotechnology. 4th ed. ASM Press 2009

More Information

During the lectures, the professor will use, in addition to PowerPoint presentations, interactive informatics tools to evaluate the continuous learning of students. The professor will provide or suggest integrative books and the most recent scientific publication on specific subjects discussed during the lectures. Copies of PowerPoint presentations will eventually also be provided.
Registration for the final exams, open until the day before the date of the exam, is carried out on Esse3.
For any other information contact the professor.
- Monica Deiana: mdeiana@unica.it
- Fabio Marongiu: fabiomarongiu@unica.it
- Enrico Sanna: esanna@unica.it; 070-6754139.

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