FA/0092 - INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY AND ENZYMOLOGY
Academic Year 2019/2020
Free text for the University
ROBERTO MONACI (Tit.)
- Teaching style
- Lingua Insegnamento
|[60/56] INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY||[60/56-00 - Ord. 2016] PERCORSO COMUNE||13||116|
Part I ( Industrial Chemistry )
Knowledge and understanding: The course aims to provide the basic knowledge and understanding related to industrial chemistry with particular reference to the principles of thermodynamics, kinetics, catalysis, reaction mechanism, the knowledge of which are important for the realization and the conduction of chemical and biotechnological processes applied to industry for sustainable development .
Applying knowledge and understanding: the student will be able to apply their knowledge and understanding in the management of industrial biotechnology processes. Make the balance of matter and energy of simple processes, solve elementary problems of heat exchange.
Making judgments: students will be able to independently gather and interpret scientific data derived from laboratory measurements, to conduct an experiment with the evaluation and quantification of the results.
Communication skills: the student will be able to conduct experiments together; draw up a report on the activities of the laboratory using the write processor and / or graphics and the most common spreadsheet programs.
Learning skills: the student will develop the skills necessary to continue their studies with a high degree of autonomy. The achieved preparation can allow
the insertion in the various areas of work.
Part II ( Enzymology )
The course provide advanced knowledge on the applications of enzymes in the industrial fields.
At the end of the course, the students should be able to discern practical conditions for enzyme application in several biotech fields.
The student must have good basic knowledge of General Chemistry, Organic Chemistry and Physical Chemistry. In particular: balancing reactions, stoichiometric calculations, solutions; the main functional groups of organic chemistry and their reactivity; Chemical thermodynamics (free energy, enthalpy, entropy), the kinetics of chemical reactions.
Strong basis of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry.
The economic importance and characteristics of the Chemical Industry.Green Chemistry. Envisioning the process : conversion, efficiency and yield. Evaluation of a reaction : economic and technical feasibility.
The material balance equation. Representation of material flow in a chemical process. The energy balance.Numerical exercises.
Catalysis. Homogeneous catalysis. Heterogeneous catalysis.Classification of catalysts, Acid solids catalysts. Kinetic of the heterogeneous catalytic reactions.
Biocatalysis : the enzymes.
Enzymes preparation for catalytic use.
Bioconversion and biotrasformation.
Immobilized enzymes. Water activity.
Reactions catalysed by enzimes.
Heat transfer : conduction and convection. Heat exchange arrangements.
Separation process. Characteristics of separation process. Selection of a separation process.
Biotechnology and the base chemistry. Polymer and biopolymer.
Biotechnology and the renewable energy.
Use of gas chromatography for analytical determinations.
Assessment of the acidity of a solid catalyst by the Benesi method.
A case study of a catalytic reaction in liquid phase.
Polymerization reactions: A) preparation of a linear polyester; B) preparation of a polyester mesh; C) nylon 6-6 synthesis.
Xylene isomers separation by fractional crystallization and distillation.
Enzymes: classification and kynetic: Ks, Km. Enzymatic rate. Enzymatic inhibition. Allosteric modulation.
Mechanism of interaction between enzymes and substrates/inhibitors/modulatos/coenzymes/cofactors. Effect of pH, temperature, organic solvents on enzymatic activity.
Determination of enzymatic activity.
Biotech applications of enzymes. Immobilization.
Main bioinformatic tools in enzymology.
The course includes 32 hours of lectures, 12 hours of numerical exercises; 24 hours of laboratory exercises.
48 hours of classroom lectures supplemented by slide projection; then laboratory practicals and computer training.
Verification of learning
The profit exam is for a written test and an oral exam. The written test consists of the resolution of numerical exercises relating to: conversion, selectivity, yield, atomic economy and atomic efficiency of a reaction, material balance, heat transfer, and three open questions on the subjects covered. The oral test addresses all the topics covered, the exercises that are the subject of the written test, and the reports of laboratory exercises. The mark is expressed in thirtieth as a sum of the votes obtained in the written test (max 10 points) and in the oral exam (max 20 points). To be able to take the oral exam, the written test must be passed by a vote of at least 6 / 10. The written test is valid for one year.
Part II:examination has the form of a colloquium.
Examinations are aimed to a correct and unbiased evaluation of the preparation degree reached by students, i.e. the achievements of the formative targets required in the course.
The examination is an individual colloquium, also requiring the use of graphics, equations, schemes, flux diagrams.The mark is expressed in thirtieth.
The final mark( arithmetic mean of the assessments reported in the two part ) takes into account several factors:
A) Expressive ability;
B) Knowledge of the scientific language relevant to the course;
C) Baggage of possessed possessions;
D) The ability to link the notions and place them within a logical framework;
E) The ability to connect different frameworks by finding common points and establishing a coherent overall design;
F) Ability to express notions and concepts graphically in the form of, for example, formulas, schemes, equations.
Consequently, judgment may be:
A) Sufficient (from 18 to 20/30)
The candidate demonstrates modest, but still sufficient, capacity to support a coherent dialogue. Few lessons learned, superficial level, many gaps, and elementary conceptual connections. Graphic expression rather stunted;
B) Fair (21 to 23)
The candidate demonstrates more expressive skills than sufficient to support a coherent dialogue. Acceptable mastery of scientific language. Discreet acquisition of notions, but little depth, few gaps, and conceptual connections of moderate complexity. Acceptable graphic expression capability;
C) Good (from 24 to 26)
The candidate demonstrates satisfactory expressive skills and significant mastery of the scientific language. Baggage of rather broad, moderate insight, with little gaps. Dialogical capacity and critical spirit well-perceived. Graphic expression capability more than acceptable;
D) Great (from 27 to 29)
The candidate demonstrates remarkable expressive abilities and a high level of mastery of scientific language. Baggage of very extensive, thorough knowledge, with marginal lacks. Significant dialogic capacity, good competence, and considerable aptitude for logical synthesis. High graphic expression capability;
E) Excellent (30)
The candidate demonstrates high expressive skills and a high level of mastery of scientific language. Baggage of very extensive and in-depth knowledge, any irrelevant gaps. Excellent dialogic capacity, a strong ability to make connections between different topics. Great acquaintance with graphic expression.
Praise is given to candidates well above the average, and whose possible expressive, notional, conceptual, and logical limits appear to be totally irrelevant.
1. Clausen- Mattson “ Principles of Industrial Chemistry, Ed. John Wiley & Sons ( 1978 )
2. Carrà – Morbidelli “ Chimica Fisica Applicata “ Ed. Hoepli ( 1983 );
3. Petrone “ Biotecnologia” Ed. Siderea ( 2000 );
Texts for insights:
1.Smith “ Biotecnologie “ Ed. Zanichelli ( 1998 );
2. Alberghina, Cernia “ Biotecnologie e Bioindustria “ Ed. Utet ( 1996 ) ;
3. Straathof “ Applied Biocatalysis “ Harwood Academic Publishers ( 2000 ) ;
4. Verga, Pilone “ Biochimica Industriale “ Ed. Springer ( 2002 )
Verga & Pilone “Biochimica Industriale”, Springer, Milano
Bonaccorsi di Patti et al., “Metodologie Biochimiche”, Ambrosiana, Milano;
De Marco e Cini “Principi di Metodologia Biochimica”, Piccin, Padova
Ninfa e Ballou “Metodologie di base per la Biochimica e le Biotecnologie”, Zanichelli, Bologna
Garrett e Grisham “Principi di Biochimica”, Piccin, Padova
Voet, Voet & Pratt, “Fondamenti di biochimica”, Zanichelli, Bologna
Voet, Voet & Pratt, “Biochemistry”, Wiley and sons
Bonner & Hargreaves "Basic Bioscience Laboratory Techniques", Wiley and Sons
The students have at their disposal:
the slides of the lectures;
copy of the record of numerical exercises with solutions;
copy of the texts of the task of examination.
Powerpoint presentations, tests and laboratory guide are available at course web site.