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First Semester 
Teaching style
Lingua Insegnamento

Informazioni aggiuntive

Course Curriculum CFU Length(h)
[60/76]  BIOTECHNOLOGY [76/10 - Ord. 2018]  Industriale e Ambientale 6 52


Educational objectives
The course aims to provide students with basic knowledge on the general characteristics of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and detailed information on cells and animal tissues. The course also proposes the study of the main techniques for the study of cells and tissues, the application of cell culture techniques and the preparation of a histological slide. The objectives described will be pursued by conducting lectures and laboratory activities.
the student will have to acquire basic knowledge on the general characteristics of the prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell and detailed knowledge of cell and animal tissues. The student will also need to know the characteristics of the microscope and the main histological techniques.
During laboratory activities (with obligatory attendance) students will develop competences on the use of optical microscope and histological atlases in order to identify and classify animal tissues. Through practical exercises the theoretical knowledge acquired during the course will be applied. In particular, students will acquire basic knowledge on cell culture techniques and on the preparation of a culture medium under sterile conditions and will set up a short-term culture of fish blood. Another laboratory activity will cover the preparation of a smear of mammal and fish blood and their comparison under a microscope
-Making Judgements: During the course, all students will take an intermediate test to evaluate the correct progression of their knowledge, and, where it will be necessary, missing part of the program will be re integrated and re-evaluated. At the end of the course students will answer to an assessment survey to verify how the course was, and how they would improve it.
-Comunication Skills: Student must achieve a good communication level on these topics (both oral and writing skills) by the use of correct and appropriate terminology.
-Learning Skills: Lectures, the cooperation with tutors, the use of books and the lab experience will allow student to achieve a good knowledge on cell features and animal tissues.


Basic Chemistry


5+1 CFU; 40 hours of lectures + 12 hours of laboratory:
Lecture syllabus:
Cytology – Chemistry of living matter: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. The cell as the basic unit of living organisms: shape, dimensions, organization; prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. How to prepare samples for compound light microscope: (fixing, inclusion and cutting , staining); Immunohistochemistry Structure and organization of cell membrane and transport mechanisms throw it. Cytoplasm: general organization, structure and functioning of cytoplasmic organelles (ribosomes, Golgi apparatus, rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER), lysosomes, peroxisomes, mitochondria). Vesicle functioning: mechanisms of endocytosis and exocytosis. Cytoskeleton and its composition, cellular mobility. Methods of adhesion and communication within cells . The nucleus: nuclear envelope, nucleoplasm e nucleoskeleton. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic genome. Chromatin and cromosomes. Cellular cycle: phase G1, S, G2; phase M: mitosis. How cellular cycle is controlled, necrosis and apoptosis. Sexual reproduction: meiosis and gametogenesis. Histology: Epithelial tissue: simple and stratified epithelium, squamous, cuboidal and columnar; exocrine and endocrine glands. Connective tissue: loose and dense connective tissue, cartilage, bone, blood and limph. Muscle tissue: skeletal striated muscle, cardiac striated muscle, smooth muscle. Nervous tissue: neuron and glial cells, nerve fiber. synapsis.
Laboratory syllabus: Module of 1 CFU, (12 hours)
Attendance in lab activities is required for the exam. During lab activities students will be involved in using light microscope and histological atlas for a correct classification of animal tissues. Lab experience will be focused on the study of animal tissues, described during the lectures. In particular all steps for prepare sample for light microscope will be described and showed and each student will prepare a blood smear. Moreover student will learn the methods for cultivate blood cells and each student will cultivate blood cells with the goal to obtain chromosome preparations.

Teaching Methods

Lectures with power points, short videos and animations. Laboratory experience with the support of a monitor linked microscope wich allows students to study and identify the animal tissues.
Preparation of cell culture and blood smear with the availability of the necessary equipment (fume cupboards, laminar flow biological hoods, centrifuges, glassware, disposable plasters and chemical reagents),

Verification of learning

-Final oral exam
-Half course test
-Final course test
-Laboratory test (animal tissue slide identification)

Final judgement
The final grade takes into account several factors:
Quality of the knowledge, skills, competences:
a) appropriateness, accuracy and consistency of knowledge
b) appropriateness, accuracy and consistency of abilities
c) appropriateness, accuracy and consistency of ability to apply knowledge and understanding

Communication skills:
a) Ability of expression;
b) Proper use of the specific language of the discipline;
c) Logical skills and inherent consequentiality in communicating;
d) Ability to connect different subjects by finding the common points and establish a consistent overall design, i.e. taking care of structure, organization and logical connections of speech;
f) Ability to summarize also through the use of specific symbolism of each discipline and graphic expression of ideas and concepts, for example in form of formulas, schemes, equations.

Relational qualities:
Availability to exchange and interact with the teacher during the interview.

Personal qualities:
a) critical thinking;
b) ability of self-evaluation.

Consequently, the judgment can be:

a) Sufficient (from 18 to 20/30)
The candidate demonstrates little acquisition of theoretical knowledge, superficial level, many gaps. Modest communicative abilities, but still sufficient to support a coherent dialogue, logical capacity and consequentiality in fitting the subjects of elementary level; poor capacity of synthesis and rather stunted ability of graphical expression, scanty interaction with the teacher during the interview.

b) Moderate (21 to 23)
The applicant demonstrates a moderate acquisition of knowledge but lack of expatiation, a few gaps; communicative abilities more than sufficient to support a coherent dialogue; acceptable mastery of the scientific language, logical capacity and consequentiality in fitting the subjects of moderate complexity, good enough capacity of synthesis and acceptable ability of graphical expression.

c) Good (24 to 26)
The candidate demonstrates a rather large wealth of knowledge, moderate in-depth, with small gaps; satisfactory mastery of the communicative abilities and meaningful scientific language; dialogical ability and critical thinking well detectable, good capacity of synthesis and more than acceptable ability of graphical expression.

d) Outstanding (27 to 29)
The candidate demonstrates a very extensive wealth of notions, high in-depth, with marginal gaps; remarkable ability in communicating and high mastery of scientific language; remarkable dialogical capacity, good competence and relevant aptitude for logical synthesis, high capacity of synthesis and graphical expression.

e) Excellent (30)
The candidate demonstrates a wealth of very extensive and in-depth knowledge, irrelevant gaps, high capacity and high mastery in communicating through the scientific language; excellent dialogical ability and marked aptitude to make connections among different subjects, excellent ability to synthesize and very familiar with the graphical expression.

The praise is attributed to the candidates clearly above average, and whose notional, expressive, conceptual, logical limits, if any, as a whole are completely irrelevant.


recommended texts:
DALLE DONNE I., Citologia e Istologia- EdiSES, 2019
COLOMBO R., OLMO E., Biologia. Cellula e tessuti. Edi-ermes 2014.

More Information

All required books can be consulted in the scientific library, while hystological atlas will be avaiable during laboratory activities. The slides of the studied tissues and the materials and methods of the experiences made in the laboratory are shared on the site or provided during the exercises.

Questionnaire and social

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