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Second Semester 
Teaching style
Lingua Insegnamento

Informazioni aggiuntive

Course Curriculum CFU Length(h)
[60/76]  BIOTECHNOLOGY [76/20 - Ord. 2018]  Farmaceutico 6 52


This course aims to furnish students a basic knowledge about main features of eucaryotic and procaryotic cells and detailed knowledges of animal cell and tissues. These goals will be achieved by lectures and lab activities.
KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING: Student must achieve a good knowledge about basic features of the cell, animal tissues and , in addition, have a good knowledge about light microscope and some histological techniques in order to prepare and recognize animal tissues.
APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING: During lab activities students will be involved in using optical microscope and histological atlas for a correct classification of animal tissues. Attendance in lab activities is required for the exam. Lab experience will be focused on those techniques explained during lectures, in particular in all steps for prepare sample for light microscope. A fish blood smear will be prepared.
MAKING JUDGEMENTS: During the course, all students will take an intermediate test to evaluate the correct progression of their knowledge, and, where it will be necessary, missing part of the program will be re integrated and re evaluated. At the end of the course students will answer to an assessment survey to verify how the course was, and how they would improve it.COMUNICATION SKILLS: Student must achieve a good communication level on these topics (both oral and writing skills) by the use of correct and appropriate terminology.
LEARNING SKILLS: Lectures, the cooperation with tutors professor, the use of books and the lab experience will allow student to achieve a good knowledge on cell features and animal tissues.


basic chemistry


5+1 CFU; 40 hours of lectures + 12 hours of laboratory:
Lecture syllabus: Cytology Chemistry of living matter: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. The cell as the basic unit of living organisms: shape, dimensions, organization; prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Methodology of study: compound light microscope: how to prepare samples (fixing, inclusion and cutting , staining); Phase-contrast microscope, fluorescent and confocal microscope. Scanning and transmission electron microscope. Immunohistochemistry and autoradiography. Cell cultures. Structure and organization of cell membrane and transport mechanisms throw it. Cytoplasm: general organization, structure and functioning of cytoplasmic organelles (ribosomes, Golgi apparatus, rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER), lysosomes, peroxisomes, mitochondria). Vesicle functioning: mechanisms of endocytosis and exocytosis. Cytoskeleton and its composition, cellular mobility. Methods of adhesion and communication within cells . The nucleus:nuclear envelope, nucleoplasm e nucleoskeleton. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic genome. Chromatin and cromosomes. Cellular cycle: phase G1, S, G2; phase M: mitosis. How cellular cycle is controlled, necrosis and apoptosis. Sexual reproduction: meiosis and gametogenesis.
Histology Epithelial tissue: simple and stratified epithelium, squamous, cuboidal and columnar; exocrine and endocrine glands (structure and secretion) .
Connective tissue: loose and dense connective tissue, cartilage, bone, blood and limph.
Muscle tissue: skeletal striated muscle, cardiac striated muscle, smooth muscle.
Nervous tissue: neuron and glial cells, nerve fiber. synapsis.

Laboratory syllabus
Module of 1 CFU, 12 hours)
During lab activities students will be involved in using light microscope and histological atlas for a correct classification of animal tissues. Attendance in lab activities is required for the exam. Lab experience will be focused on those techniques explained during lectures, in particular in all steps for prepare sample for light microscope.
Each student will prepare and stain a fish blood smear.

Teaching Methods

Lectures (5 CFU-40 ore) with power points, short videos and animations.
Laboratory experiences (1 CFU-12 ore) with the support of a monitor linked microscope wich allows students to study and identify the animal tissues.
Each student prepares and stains a smear of fish blood

Verification of learning

-Final oral exam
-Half course tests
-Laboratory test (animal tissue slide identification)

Final judgement
The final grade takes into account several factors:
Quality of the knowledge, skills, competences:
a) appropriateness, accuracy and consistency of knowledge
b) appropriateness, accuracy and consistency of abilities
c) appropriateness, accuracy and consistency of ability to apply knowledge and understanding

Communication skills:
a) Ability of expression;
b) Proper use of the specific language of the discipline;
c) Logical skills and inherent consequentiality in communicating;
d) Ability to connect different subjects by finding the common points and establish a consistent overall design, i.e. taking care of structure, organization and logical connections of speech;
f) Ability to summarize also through the use of specific symbolism of each discipline and graphic expression of ideas and concepts, for example in form of formulas, schemes, equations.

Relational qualities:
Availability to exchange and interact with the teacher during the interview.

Personal qualities:
a) critical thinking;
b) ability of self-evaluation.

Consequently, the judgment can be:

a) Sufficient (from 18 to 20/30)
The candidate demonstrates little acquisition of theoretical knowledge, superficial level, many gaps. Modest communicative abilities, but still sufficient to support a coherent dialogue, logical capacity and consequentiality in fitting the subjects of elementary level; poor capacity of synthesis and rather stunted ability of graphical expression, scanty interaction with the teacher during the interview.

b) Moderate (21 to 23)
The applicant demonstrates a moderate acquisition of knowledge but lack of expatiation, a few gaps; communicative abilities more than sufficient to support a coherent dialogue; acceptable mastery of the scientific language, logical capacity and consequentiality in fitting the subjects of moderate complexity, good enough capacity of synthesis and acceptable ability of graphical expression.

c) Good (24 to 26)
The candidate demonstrates a rather large wealth of knowledge, moderate in-depth, with small gaps; satisfactory mastery of the communicative abilities and meaningful scientific language; dialogical ability and critical thinking well detectable, good capacity of synthesis and more than acceptable ability of graphical expression.

d) Outstanding (27 to 29)
The candidate demonstrates a very extensive wealth of notions, high in-depth, with marginal gaps; remarkable ability in communicating and high mastery of scientific language; remarkable dialogical capacity, good competence and relevant aptitude for logical synthesis, high capacity of synthesis and graphical expression.
e) Excellent (30)
The candidate demonstrates a wealth of very extensive and in-depth knowledge, irrelevant gaps, high capacity and high mastery in communicating through the scientific language; excellent dialogical ability and marked aptitude to make connections among different subjects, excellent ability to synthesize and very familiar with the graphical expression.
The praise is attributed to the candidates clearly above average, and whose notional, expressive, conceptual, logical limits, if any, as a whole are completely irrelevant


recommended books:
DALLE DONNE I., Citologia e Istologia -EdiSES, 2019
COLOMBO R., OLMO E., Biologia: la cellula e i tessuti. Edi-ermes, 2014.
other recommended books:
Bonfanti et al., citologia & istologia, II ed., IDELSON GNOCCHI, 2010; ROSATI P. e C. COLOMBO, 1999 La cellula, I tessuti, edi-ermes; ALBERTS et al., 2009 "Biologia molecolare della cellula", Zanichelli.

More Information

All required books can be consulted in scientific library, while hystological atlas and the hystological slides will be avaiable during laboratory activities. Slides related to the studied tissues will be given to the students.

Questionnaire and social

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