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First Semester 
Teaching style
Lingua Insegnamento

Informazioni aggiuntive

Course Curriculum CFU Length(h)
[60/56]  INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY [60/56-00 - Ord. 2016]  PERCORSO COMUNE 6 56


The course aims to provide students with the basics of general physiology, with particular reference to the functional organization of animal cell, acquiring knowledge in the preparation and analysis of biological samples, in particular the main techniques of in vitro cell culture methods using laboratory and microscopy aimed at their application in biotechnology.

The knowledge acquired by students during the course of Cellular Physiology allow him to have knowledge of applications of methodological and instrumental analysis with particular reference to areas of biological and molecular neurobiology.

Applied capabilities:
This course also provides the student with knowledge of methodology and instrument applications for the characterization of the activity of physiologically active molecules.

Making judgments:
The Physiology course allows the student to acquire the knowledge required to analyze biological phenomena at the basis of cellular functions and systems,make connections between systems and mechanisms combining theory and practice. his will allow the student to develop an increasing level of independent judgment in issues and scientific issues, social and ethical.

Communication skills:
The course contributes to learn the language, logic and synthesis in science allowing the student to communicate effectively on physiology issues.

Learning skills:
The themes of Physiology course will be treated by adopting innovative teaching strategies that allow the students to meet the knowledge needs and develop a self-critical ability in science.


Preliminary knowledge as defined by the accademic rules:
Chemistry with laboratory, Physics tutorials


Program of cellular physiology and laboratory of Physiology
Structure of the cell with particular reference to cell membrane. Concept of Homeostasis, general characteristics of the homeostatic control systems. Cells: communication with the environment. Membrane transports. Voltage-gated ion channels and ligand-dependent. Passive transports, simple diffusion and "non-ionic diffusion", transports through membrane channels. Aquaporins. Vesicular transport. Mediated transport: facilitated diffusion, primary and secondary active transport. Neurons and the nervous system. The resting potential. The passive electrical properties of cell membranes. Ionic basis of the action potential. Conduction of action potentials. Local Potential. Electrical and chemical synapses. Chemical messengers, receptors and cellular responses. G-proteins and second messengers. Local messengers, hormones, neurotransmitters, neuropeptides.
Cell cultures: general information on techniques for preparation of cell cultures, elements characterizing cell cultures, differences between primary cultures and cell lines according to their capacity to proliferate and differentiate and aging parameters. Manual procedures for the use of cell cultures. Preparation of culture media. Growth factors. Optimal conditions for the cultivation of cells. Working in sterile conditions with a laminar flow hood. Techniques of disinfection and sterilization. Test of cell viability. Human pluripotent stem cells. Immunohistochemical techniques to characterize cell types in culture. Apoptosis: general concepts, use of specific stains for studying cellular morphology. Identification by optical microscopy of apoptotic cells. Processing methods and image analysis applied to the study of cells and tissues. Analysis of olfactory and gustatory function: psychobiological tests; electrophysiology: set-up for derivations of bioelectric signals. Homeostatic functional parameters in isolated cells: osmolarity, isosmotic, iposmotic and iperosmotic solutions, responses of human erythrocytes to changes in osmolarity of the extracellular medium. Specific antibodies to detect the presence of antigen molecules for the determination of AB0 blood groups and D antigen for the determination of the Rh blood group.

Teaching Methods

Program is divided into:
frontal lessons: 4 credits, 32 hours
laboratory: 2 credits, 24 hours
For a total of 6 credits, 60 hours

Verification of learning

Test modality
The final exam of the course of cell physiology is based mainly on the evaluation of a written and an oral examination.
Examinations are aimed to a correct and unbiased evaluation of the preparation degree reached by students, i.e. the achievements of the formative targets required in the course:
a) acquisition of a notion baggage coherent and consistent;
b) logical integration among the acquired notions, to build a logical and cognitive path, suitable for reaching competence;
c) Ability in developing the acquired skills to continue the study or to apply them at work or as a professional.
The examination is an individual colloquium, also requiring the use of graphics, equations, schemes, flux diagrams. From general to particular, the student will move among basic concepts to proceed in depth within the topic.
Final decision
The final decision takes into account some factors:
a) Meaningfulness;
b) Knowledge of the scientific language related to the specific course;
c) Knowledge of the specific course contents;
d) Ability in correlating notions and place them into a coherent frame;
e) Ability in relating different frames within a comprehensive and consistent view;
f) ability in the use of graphics, equations, schemes, flux diagrams, chemical structural formulae,equations.
Consequently, judgment may be:
A) Sufficient (from 18 to 20/30)
The candidate demonstrates little knowledge acquired, superficial level, many gaps. Modest expression ability, but still sufficient to sustain a coherent conversation;
B) Moderate (from 21 to 23/30)
The candidate demonstrates decent acquisition of knowledge but little depth, a few gaps; expressive abilities more than sufficient to sustain a coherent conversation; acceptable mastery of scientific language; logic skills and consequentiality in the linking of moderately complex topics; more than enough capacity for synthesis and expression
C) Good (from 24 to 26/30)
The candidate demonstrates satisfactory expressive capabilities and significant mastery of scientific language; a wealth of notions rather broad, moderate depth, with small gaps; dialogic skills and critical spirit well detectable; good ability to synthesize and graphical expression capabilities acceptable.
d) Very good (from 27 to 29/30)
The candidate demonstrates a wealth of very extensive, in-depth knowledge, with marginal gaps; remarkable expressive capabilities and high mastery of scientific language; remarkable dialogic ability, good skills and relevant aptitude for logic synthesis; high ability for synthesis and graphic expression.
e) Excellent (30/30)
The candidate demonstrates a wealth of very extensive, in-depth knowledge, with possible irrelevant gaps; expressive high capacity and high mastery of scientific language; excellent dialogic ability, ability to make connections between different subjects; excellent ability to synthesize and very familiar with graphic expression.
Praise is attributed to candidates clearly above average, and whose possible limits of knowledge, expression, understanding and logics are entirely irrelevant as a whole.


FISIOLOGIA e BIOFISICA DELLA CELLULA. Volume I, V. Taglietti e C. Casella. Ed. EdiSES.
FISIOLOGIA UMANA "Un approccio integrato" 5/edD. U. SILVERTHORN - Edi/Pearson.

Fisiologia medica. Guyton e Hall. 13° Ed. Edra  

Introduzione alle colture cellulari- II edizione, G. L. Mariottini, V. Capicchioni, L. Guida, F. Mattioli, S. Penco, P, Romano, L. Scarabelli; Tecniche nuove. 

Culture of Animal Cells - A manual of technique. R. Ian Freshney, Wiley - Liss

More Information

Some tools will be used to support teaching in specific "PowerPoint" presentations,of which the PDF file will be provided to students. Moreover, shared digital supports will be used to create tests based on the lesson learning even anonymously, and see the result immediately afterwards by mean of the support ability to automatically correct or answer

Questionnaire and social

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