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Second Semester 
Teaching style
Lingua Insegnamento

Informazioni aggiuntive

Course Curriculum CFU Length(h)
[60/56]  INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY [60/56-00 - Ord. 2014]  PERCORSO COMUNE 8 76


The course provides fundamental concepts about the biology of the prokaryotic cell and virus, putting them in the context of modern science and changing what is Microbiology.
The knowledge and experience gained in the laboratory will allow students to carry out practical work in research laboratories.
The course provide to stimulate both independent and group work.


It is prerequisite passing exam of Biochemistry.


History of Microbiology.
Molecular systematics and microbial evolution: evolutionary relationships among microorganisms. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The microbial phylogeny determined by ribosomal RNA sequences. The characteristics of the primary taxonomic domains. Gram + and Gram-bacteria.
Structure / function in the prokaryotic cell: internal structures, the cytoplasmic membrane, cell wall, the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. The flagella and microbial locomotion. Chemotaxis. Surface structures in prokaryotes. The endospores.
Nutrition and metabolism of microorganisms: micronutrients and macronutrients. Glycolysis as example of fermentation. The respiration and the electron carriers. The proto-motive force. Overview of alternative catabolic (anaerobic respiration, chemiolitotrophy, fototrophy).
Microbial growth and its control: Growth Cycle of a bacterial population. Effects of environmental and nutritional conditions on microbial growth. Antimicrobial agents: mechanisms of action.
Elements of Virology: General properties of viruses. Cycle of viral multiplication. Patterns of viral replication. Virulent and temperate bacteriophages. Models of replication of DNA and RNA animal viruses.
Genetics of microorganisms: Organization of genetic material in prokaryotes. Mechanisms of genetic exchange among bacteria: transformation, transduction and conjugation.
Interactions between microorganisms and humans: Overview of human-microorganism interactions. The penetration of the pathogen within the host. Colonization and growth. Virulence factors and toxins.
Principles of Immunology: Cells and organs of the immune system. The non-specific immunity. The specific immune response. Antigens, T cells and cellular immunity. Antibodies and Immunity.
Principles for the cultivation of bacteria and viruses in the laboratory: physicochemical and nutritional conditions for the cultivation of microorganisms. Culture media. The coloration in bacteriology. Techniques for the identification of bacterial species and obtaining pure cultures. Measurement of microbial growth: the total count and viable count. Biochemical tests. Sensitivity and susceptibility of bacteria to antibiotics. Cell cultures. Techniques for the cultivation and study of viruses.

Teaching Methods

5 + 3 CFU: 76 hrs
Lectures: 5 CFU (40 hrs)
Laboratory: 3 CFU (36 hrs)

Verification of learning


Final judgement
The final grade takes into account several factors:
Quality of the knowledge, skills, competences:
a) appropriateness, accuracy and consistency of knowledge
b) appropriateness, accuracy and consistency of abilities
c) appropriateness, accuracy and consistency of ability to apply knowledge and understanding

Communication skills:
a) Ability of expression;
b) Proper use of the specific language of the discipline;
c) Logical skills and inherent consequentiality in communicating;
d) Ability to connect different subjects by finding the common points and establish a consistent overall design, i.e. taking care of structure, organization and logical connections of speech;
e) Ability to summarize also through the use of specific symbolism of each discipline and graphic expression of ideas and concepts, for example in form of formulas, schemes, equations.

Relational qualities:
Availability to exchange and interact with the teacher during the interview.

Personal qualities:
a) critical thinking;
b) ability of self-evaluation.

Consequently, the judgment can be:

a) Sufficient (from 18 to 20/30)
The candidate demonstrates little acquisition of theoretical knowledge, superficial level, many gaps. Modest communicative abilities, but still sufficient to support a coherent dialogue, logical capacity and consequentiality in fitting the subjects of elementary level; poor capacity of synthesis and rather stunted ability of graphical expression, scanty interaction with the teacher during the interview.

b) Moderate (21 to 23)
The applicant demonstrates a moderate acquisition of knowledge but lack of expatiation, a few gaps; communicative abilities more than sufficient to support a coherent dialogue; acceptable mastery of the scientific language, logical capacity and consequentiality in fitting the subjects of moderate complexity, good enough capacity of synthesis and acceptable ability of graphical expression.

c) Good (24 to 26)
The candidate demonstrates a rather large wealth of knowledge, moderate in-depth, with small gaps; satisfactory mastery of the communicative abilities and meaningful scientific language; dialogical ability and critical thinking well detectable, good capacity of synthesis and more than acceptable ability of graphical expression.

d) Outstanding (27 to 29)
The candidate demonstrates a very extensive wealth of notions, high in-depth, with marginal gaps; remarkable ability in communicating and high mastery of scientific language; remarkable dialogical capacity, good competence and relevant aptitude for logical synthesis, high capacity of synthesis and graphical expression.

e) Excellent (30)
The candidate demonstrates a wealth of very extensive and in-depth knowledge, irrelevant gaps, high capacity and high mastery in communicating through the scientific language; excellent dialogical ability and marked aptitude to make connections among different subjects, excellent ability to synthesize and very familiar with the graphical expression.

The praise is attributed to the candidates clearly above average, and whose notional, expressive, conceptual, logical limits, if any, as a whole are completely irrelevant.


Madigan M.T., Martinko J.M., Brock Biologia dei Microrganismi. Vol. 1-2. Microbiologia generale. Casa Editrice Ambrosiana.

More Information

We will provide copies of all course materials not found in textbooks

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