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Second Semester 
Teaching style
Lingua Insegnamento

Informazioni aggiuntive

Course Curriculum CFU Length(h)
[60/56]  INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY [60/56-00 - Ord. 2014]  PERCORSO COMUNE 7 68


The course will allow the acquisition of the knowledge of the parameters that describe the various aggregation states of the matter, its transformations, the energy exchanges with the environment, particularly those concerning the chemical reactions (spontaneity, equilibrium, kinetics and catalysis). Moreover, the course is expected to increase the analytical skills through experimental procedures aimed to the determination of physico-chemical parameters.


It is strongly recommended that the examinations of chimica generale and chimica organica are both passed.


- Aggregation states of matter
- Laws of perfect gases (Boyle, Charles, Avogadro). Equation of state. Gas mixtures. Kinetic theory of gases and speed (hints). Energy and force. Intermolecular forces. Van der Waals equation.
- The liquid state. Intermolecular forces accountable for the state of cohesion. Viscosity and surface tension.
- The solid state. Crystalline and amorphous solids. Concepts of isotropy and anisotropy. The colloidal state. Dispersed systems. Aggregation states intermediate between solid and liquid. Phase transitions.
- First law of thermodynamics. Energy storage. Work and energy. Reversible and irreversible processes. Internal energy. Heat capacity. Enthalpy in chemical reactions and phase transitions.
- Second law of thermodynamics. Entropy. Spontaneous transformations. Free energy of formation of compounds and of reaction. The equilibrium condition.
- Chemical kinetics. Reaction rate. Reaction order. First- and second-order reaction. Arrhenius equation. Activated complex theory: potential energy/reaction coordinate diagram.
- Catalysis. Adsorption phenomena. Catalysts. Homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. Enzymatic catalysis.
- Ethanol viscosity determination at various temperatures through the Ostwald viscometer and verification of the Arrhenius equation.
- Kinetics of the persulfate-iodide reaction. Determination of the partial reaction orders.
- Determination of the rate constant k and of the Arrhenius parameters A and Ea of the saponification reaction of the ethyl acetate through conductivity studies.
- Determination of the critical micelle concentration of the sodium dodecylsulfate surfactant through conductivity studies.

Teaching Methods

The course is subdivided in 32 hours of lecture and 36 hours of laboratory.

Verification of learning


Final judgement
The final grade takes into account several factors:
Quality of the knowledge, skills, competences:
a) appropriateness, accuracy and consistency of knowledge
b) appropriateness, accuracy and consistency of abilities
c) appropriateness, accuracy and consistency of ability to apply knowledge and understanding

Communication skills:
a) Ability of expression;
b) Proper use of the specific language of the discipline;
c) Logical skills and inherent consequentiality in communicating;
d) Ability to connect different subjects by finding the common points and establish a consistent overall design, i.e. taking care of structure, organization and logical connections of speech;
f) Ability to summarize also through the use of specific symbolism of each discipline and graphic expression of ideas and concepts, for example in form of formulas, schemes, equations.

Relational qualities:
Availability to exchange and interact with the teacher during the interview.

Personal qualities:
a) critical thinking;
b) ability of self-evaluation.

Consequently, the judgment can be:

a) Sufficient (from 18 to 20/30)
The candidate demonstrates little acquisition of theoretical knowledge, superficial level, many gaps. Modest communicative abilities, but still sufficient to support a coherent dialogue, logical capacity and consequentiality in fitting the subjects of elementary level; poor capacity of synthesis and rather stunted ability of graphical expression, scanty interaction with the teacher during the interview.

b) Moderate (21 to 23)
The applicant demonstrates a moderate acquisition of knowledge but lack of expatiation, a few gaps; communicative abilities more than sufficient to support a coherent dialogue; acceptable mastery of the scientific language, logical capacity and consequentiality in fitting the subjects of moderate complexity, good enough capacity of synthesis and acceptable ability of graphical expression.

c) Good (24 to 26)
The candidate demonstrates a rather large wealth of knowledge, moderate in-depth, with small gaps; satisfactory mastery of the communicative abilities and meaningful scientific language; dialogical ability and critical thinking well detectable, good capacity of synthesis and more than acceptable ability of graphical expression.

d) Outstanding (27 to 29)
The candidate demonstrates a very extensive wealth of notions, high in-depth, with marginal gaps; remarkable ability in communicating and high mastery of scientific language; remarkable dialogical capacity, good competence and relevant aptitude for logical synthesis, high capacity of synthesis and graphical expression.

e) Excellent (30)
The candidate demonstrates a wealth of very extensive and in-depth knowledge, irrelevant gaps, high capacity and high mastery in communicating through the scientific language; excellent dialogical ability and marked aptitude to make connections among different subjects, excellent ability to synthesize and very familiar with the graphical expression.

The praise is attributed to the candidates clearly above average, and whose notional, expressive, conceptual, logical limits, if any, as a whole are completely irrelevant.


P. W. Atkins “Elementi di Chimica Fisica” , Ed. Zanichelli

More Information

Slides of the course and the professor’s lecture notes will be given to te students.

Questionnaire and social

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