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First Semester 
Teaching style
Lingua Insegnamento

Informazioni aggiuntive

Course Curriculum CFU Length(h)
[60/76]  BIOTECHNOLOGY [76/20 - Ord. 2018]  Farmaceutico 10 96


The course aims to convey the basic knowledge of General and Inorganic Chemistry.
-atoms, the properties of the elements as a function of the electron configuration and the position in the periodic table, ionic and molecular compounds;
- the chemical formulas of the oxides, hydroxides, hydracids, acids, bases, salts, molecular compounds, common use and their structure, with particular attention to the formation of intra- and intermolecular chemical bonds;
- the different states of matter and their changes;
-the classification of reactions and their balancing;
- the solutions and their properties. The principles of chemical equilibrium, acids, bases, salts, buffers and pH;
-the main physical-chemical properties of some elements and their compounds
-the safety standards, use of glassware and small instruments which electronic scales and pH meters.
- laboratory techniques for the preparation of solutions and their qualitative and quantitative analysis.

• identify and write formulas for inorganic compounds (oxides, hydroxides, hydracids, acids, bases, salts, molecular compounds in common use)
• and associate them with both the chemical bonds present that their state of aggregation. Predict the form, geometry and polarity of molecules.
• Know how to write and describe the qualitative and quantitative aspects for the preparation of a known strength and predict the pH.
• Know how to write and describe the qualitative and quantitative aspects (stoichiometric) of a chemical reaction
• Know how to carry out simple experiments in a chemical laboratory;
• Know how to present the experimental data

Ability to interpret knowledge and experimental data and to apply them in the right context. The in-itinere tests and exercises, as well the experiments in the laboratory will offer the student the opportunity to evaluate and verify the knowledge acquired.
Acquisition of terminology and chemical knowledge. Sharing of equipment and spaces during the laboratory experiences will develop the ability of students to work in groups. The construction of graphs allow students to become familiar with scientific calculators, with electronic spreadsheets (eg. Graphic or Excel) and will provide expertise on the presentation of experimental data that have scientific rigor.
Each topic covered will be treated first as a theoretical point of view, then will be practically developed through experience in the laboratory and the results will then be examined by the appropriate tests and exercises. This approach will help the student to develop interconnection capacity and therefore learning.


Knowledge of basic mathematics (equations of first and second degree, logarithms, exponential, etc ...).
It is required to pass the test of access to the Biotechnology Degree


Module I (6 CFU- 48 hours):
-Introduction to chemistry and to the scientific method; (2 hours)
-The matter: aggregation states, elements and compounds, substances and mixtures. The physical and chemical transformations. (1 hour)
-The atomic model: the subatomic particles (electrons, neutrons, protons), atomic number, atomic mass, isotopes. (2 hours)
-Stoichiometry, mole, mass to mole conversion (2 hours)
-Electronic configuration, Aufbau principle , Pauli exclusion principle, Hund's rule, periodic properties. (4 hours)
-The periodic table: elements, groups, periods, regions. Traditional and IUPAC nomenclature. (4 hours)
- Classification of chemical reactions and and balancing equation. The solutions, solubility, concentration (molarity, molality, weight %, volume%, ppm). Limiting reactant. Stoichiometric calculations. (4 hours)
-The chemical bond: valence electrons, Lewis structures, octet rule and exceptions. (3 hours)
Ionic bond. Covalent bond. Polarity of bond, electronegativity, oxidation number. Molecular geometry (VSEPR model). Orbital hybridization. (5 hours)
- The redox reactions and their balancing. (3 hours)
-The states of matter: gas, liquid and solid. Intra- and inter-molecular forces. Exothermic and endothermic processes. (5 hours)
-Chemical equilibrium and the law of mass action. The equilibrium constant (K), reaction quotient (Q), Le Chatelier's principle. (2 hours)
- Acid-base equilibria: acid and basic definition (Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry. Lewis), strength, reactivity. water autoionization, pH and pOH. Stoichiometric calculations. (6 hours)
- Hydrolysis equilibria of salts and buffer solutions. Stoichiometric calculations (3 hours)
-Solubility equilibria: the solubility product (Kps). Common ion effect. Stoichiometric calculations. (2 hours).

Module II (Laboratory) (4 CFU - 48 hours):

Introduction to the laboratory. Standards and safety equipment; equipment and laboratory glassware: use, cleaning and maintenance. Measurements of volume (graduated and volumetric glassware, sampling); Measurements of mass (different types of balances). Magnetic stirrers. (Theory and Laboratory: 4 hours)

Units of measure and conversions (S.I.) and data processing. Significant figures, experimental uncertainty, error, error propagation. (2 hours)

Solutions, Solubility. Units of measurement of concentrations. Solubility and miscibility, factors that affect the solubility. Stoichiometric calculations. (2 hours) Laboratory: Preparation of solutions of different salts, acids and bases. Experimental determination of the solubility of a salt (6 hours)

Chemical reactivity. Laboratory: Precipitation reactions involving different metals (aluminium, zinc, lead, iron, nickel, cobalt, copper), decomposition reactions, redox reaction and reactions with gas formation( 8 hours)

Volumetric analysis. General principles, primary and secondary standards, acid-base titrations, precipitation titrations. (2 hours)

Acids, bases and buffers. Calculation of the pH of solutions of acids and bases. The buffer solutions: preparation, check of their buffer effect, and pH. Acid-base indicators. (6 hours) Laboratory: preparation of a salt solutions and pH determination, preparation of a buffer solution and check of its the buffer effect. (3 hours)

Titrations: strong acid-strong base titration; weak acid- strong base titration and their related curves. (2 hours) Laboratory: Titration of a strong acid with a strong base with a pH indicator and with a pH-meter. (4 hours) Titration of vinegar. (3 hours). determination of chlorides in water by precipitation titration. ( 3 hours)
Separation and purification techniques. Settling, gravity filtration, crystallization. Laboratory: PbI2 : Synthesis, purification and crystallization. (3 hours)

Teaching Methods

The course takes place in the first semester of the first year and lasts for about 13 weeks (6-7 hours per week in two different days). The course consists of lectures (50 hours), exercises in stoichiometry (10), three in-itinere tests (6 hours) and 6-7 laboratory experiments (30 hours)
The lectures are inclusive of exercises and tests and are accompanied by tutoring action by the tutors.

Verification of learning

The student's assessment includes a written test of 10 excercises about the program carried out and a question about one of the experiments performed in the laboratory, and an oral exam.
Other factors will contribute to the final mark. For example the student's participation in classes, in tutorials and laboratory activities, as well as the laboratory reports will be considered.
For the final assessment it will consider the following aspects:
1. the procedure utilized for the solution of the question;
2. clarity in the presentation of the proposed solution to the question;
3. logic followed by the student in the resolution of the question;
4. the adequacy of the proposed solution in relation to the skills that the student it is supposed have acquired;
5. a suitable scientific language.

The satisfaction of the aspects n. 1 and n. 2 is a necessary condition for the achievement of a rating equal to 18/30. Marks up to 27/30 will be achieved if the first 4 aspects eill be satisfied. Marks higher than 27/30 will be awarded to students whose exams meet all five aspects listed above.
In detail:
30 cum laude. The written test is correct. The student has clearly outlined all the steps of the exercises. Rigorous solution methods have been applied. The student has actively participated in laboratory activities showing excellent practical skills and critical sense. The oral exam is excellent. Skills, independent judgment, communication skills and learning ability are excellent.
28-30 The written test is correct. The student has clearly outlined all the steps. Rigorous solution methods have been applied. The student has actively participated in the laboratory activities showing very good practical skills. The oral exam is excellent. Skills, independent judgment, communication skills and ability to learn are very good.
25-27 The written test is correct with some inaccuracies on some exercises. The student has participated in the laboratory activities demonstrating good practical skills. Skills, independent judgment, communication skills and learning skills are good.
22-24 The written test is affected by some errors, and sometimes exercises and issues are not comprehensive. The is able to work in a group and to perform simple laboratory experiments. Skills, independent judgment, communication skills and learning skills are adequate.
18-21 The written test is affected by a certain number of errors, and some exercises and issues are incomplete. The is able to work in a group and to perform simple laboratory experiments. Skills, independent judgment, communication skills and ability to learn are sufficient.


Module I:

Suggested: Kotz, Treichel, Townsend "Chemistry" and fifth. EdiSES
Kotz, Treichel, Townsend "Chemistry" and fourth. EdiSES
Kotz, Treichel & Weaver "Chemistry" and third. EdiSES

Other books:
-Atkins, Jones, "Principi di Chimica", Zanichelli

-J.W.Moore, C.L.Stanitski, J.L.Wood, J.C.Kotz, M.Joesten, "Chemistry," and. Zanichelli

Module II
A) Teacher Slides
B) Elements of Analytical Chemistry, D. C. Harris; Zanichelli. "

More Information

Slides and exercises can be downloaded by the website

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