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Second Semester 
Teaching style
Lingua Insegnamento

Informazioni aggiuntive

Course Curriculum CFU Length(h)
[60/56]  INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY [60/56-00 - Ord. 2016]  PERCORSO COMUNE 8 76


The course aims to produce graduates of Level I with a solid basic knowledge of the biology of microorganisms, their role in the environment and employment potential in the various fields of research. These skills are indispensable preconditions for further study in specific Magistral and / or professionalizing Master courses .

Knowledge and understanding:
The special features of the structure, metabolism, physiology and molecular biology of prokaryotes and viruses, understanding differences and similarities with the Eucharistic microorganisms, as well as fundamental aspects of their interactions with higher organisms, plants and animals, and the environment. Understand the importance of advancement of knowledge on the biology of microorganisms for the continued development of microbiological biotechnology.

Application capabilities:
The knowledge of the biology of bacteria and viruses provide basic skills to acquire basic application capabilities methodological, procedural and instrumental of microbiology laboratories, both in diagnostic and experimental.

Making judgments:
The main knowledge from different fields of microbiology are transmitted to students exemplifying the specific experimental evidence, stimulating the individual reasoning and collective discussion on the scientific method and critical evaluation of the results.

Communication skills:
The use of scientific language appropriate and proper microbiological terminology will enable the acquisition of communication skills and ability to convey a clear and precise microbiology topics.

Learning skills:
The knowledge of anatomy, biochemistry, physiology and molecular biology of bacteria and viruses, their role in the environment, the relations established with their guests, and the potential for their use in different fields of biomedical research and biotechnology, are acquired by exercising reworking of the lectures content with those of textbooks.


Adequate knowledge of Inorganic Chemistry, Organic Chemistry, Cytology, Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Genetics.


Class lessons (4 CFU; 32 hours)

Structures and functions in microorganisms. Composition, structure and distinctive elements of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Diversity of eukaryotic microorganisms. Structure and function of the cytoplasmic membrane of prokaryotes. The Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria: general characteristics. Structure and synthesis of peptidogicano. The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria: lipopolysaccharide and porins. The cytoplasmic organelles. The flagella, pili, fimbriae. The capsule and mucous layers. The bacterial endospore: structure and biological significance.

Metabolism, nutrition and growth in prokaryotes.
Key aspects of metabolic diversity and microbial nutrition. Energy and carbon sources in oxigenic and anoxigenic phototrophic, chemoeterotrophic and chemolithotrophic prokaryotes. Influence of temperature, pH and pressure on bacterial growth. The growth curve. The process of cell division in bacteria. The control of bacterial growth. Antibiotics.

Molecular biology and bacterial genetics.
Organization of genetic material in prokaryotes: the bacterial chromosome and plasmids. The process of replication, transcription and translation in bacteria. Mechanisms of recombination and genetic exchange among bacteria: genetic transformation, phage transduction, conjugation. The F factor and HFR cells.

Biocommunication of the prokaryotic cell.
Environment and hosts. The process of chemotaxis. Host-parasite relationships: the microbial flora; major pathogenic mechanisms of bacteria. The bacterial endotoxin and exotoxins.

Elements of Virology.
General characteristics, structure and classification of animal and bacterial viruses. Viral replication in bacteria of virulent and temperate phages; lytic and lysogenic cycle. Models of replication of DNA and RNA animal viruses.

Molecular systematics and microbial evolution.
The early Earth and the origin of life. The microbial evolution.

Laboratory (3 CFU, 36 hours)

Principles for the cultivation of bacteria and viruses in the laboratory. Preparation and sterilization of culture media for the isolation of bacteria from samples. Preparation of a smear from a bacterial culture, staining and observation under the light microscope. Methods for quantitation of bacterial cells. Susceptibility testing of bacteria to antibiotics.

Teaching Methods

The course is organized in lectures and practical classes in the laboratory.

Verification of learning

The final evaluation is an oral exam that takes into account several factors:
Quality of the knowledge, skills, competences showed:
a) appropriateness, accuracy and consistency of knowledge
b) appropriateness, accuracy and consistency of skills
c) appropriateness, accuracy and consistency of skills
Exhibition mode:
a) Capacity of expression;
b) Proper use of the specific language of the discipline;
c) Logical ability also in the consequential fitting of the contents;
e) Ability to connect different subjects by finding the common points and establish a consistent overall design;
f) Ability to summarize through the use of symbolism on the matter, and including the graphic expression of ideas and concepts, for example scheme of biological processes and structures.
Relational qualities:
Ability to talk and interac with the teacher during the interview.
Personal qualities:
a) critical spirit;
b) ability to self-evaluation.

Consequently, the judgment can be:
a) Fair (18 to 20/30)
The candidate demonstrates little knowledge acquired, superficial level, many gaps. Expressive abilities modest, but still sufficient to support a coherent dialogue, logical and consequential in the fitting of the subjects of the elementary level; poor capacity for synthesis and ability to graphic expression rather stunted, lack of interaction with the examiner.
b) Moderate (21 to 23)
The applicant demonstrates a discreet acquisition of knowledge but lack of depth, a few gaps; expressive abilities more than sufficient to support a coherent dialogue; acceptable mastery of the language of science, logical and consequential in the fitting of the arguments of moderate complexity, more than enough capacity for synthesis and ability to graphic expression acceptable.
c) Good (24 to 26)
The candidate demonstrates knowledge rather large, moderate depth, with few gaps; satisfactory mastery of the expressive capabilities and significant scientific language; critical ability, good capacity for synthesis and ability to graphic expression more than acceptable.
d) Outstanding (27 to 29)
The candidate demonstrates a wealth of notions very extensive, well depth, with marginal gaps; remarkable powers of expression and high mastery of scientific language; remarkable dialogue capacity, good competence and relevant aptitude for logic synthesis, high capacity for synthesis and graphic expression.
e) Excellent (30)
The candidate demonstrates a wealth of very extensive and in-depth knowledge, gaps irrelevant, high capacity and high mastery of the expressive language of science; excellent ability dialogical aptitude to make connections between different subjects, excellent ability to synthesize and very familiar with the expression graphics.
The praise is attributed to the candidates clearly above average, and whose notional limits, if any, expressive, conceptual, logical, as a whole are completely irrelevant.


Madigan MT, Martinko JM, Parker J. BROCK: BIOLOGIA DEI MICRORGANISMI. 11th Edition. Casa Editrice Ambrosiana.

Stanier RY, Ingraham JL, Wheelis ML. IL MONDO DEI MICRORGANISMI. Zanichelli.

Prescott LM, Harley JP, Klein DA. MICROBIOLOGIA. Zanichelli.

More Information

The lectures are conducted by the teacher with the support of slides illustrative of structures, processes, mechanisms.
The laboratory classes are organized so that each student can physically carry out experimental experiences, and are preceded and followed by presentation of the teacher and group discussion in the classroom with the support of slides illustrative of the experiences in the laboratory, also in the light of their advantages and limits compared to other procedures in use in the microbiology laboratories.

Questionnaire and social

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