FA/0086 - ANIMAL AND PLANT CYTOLOGY
Academic Year 2016/2017
Free text for the University
SUSANNA SALVADORI (Tit.)
Ciclo Annuale Unico
- Teaching style
- Lingua Insegnamento
|[60/56] INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY||[60/56-00 - Ord. 2016] PERCORSO COMUNE||12||108|
Educational objectives: This course aims to furnish students a basic knowledge about main features of eucaryotic and procaryotic cells and animal tissues. These goals will be achieved by lectures and lab activities.
-Knowledge and Understanding: Student must achieve a good knowledge about basic features of the cell, animal tissues and , in addition, have a good knowledge about light microscope and some histological techniques in order to prepare and recognize animal tissues.
-Applying Knowledge and Understanding: During lab activities students will be involved in using optical microscope and histological atlas for a correct classification of animal tissues. Attendance in lab activities is required for the exam. Lab experience will be focused on those techniques explained during lectures, in particular in all steps for prepare sample for light microscope. A fish blood smear will be prepared.
-Making Judgements: During the course, all students will take an intermediate test to evaluate the correct progression of their knowledge, and, where it will be necessary, missing part of the program will be re integrated and re-evaluated. At the end of the course students will answer to an assessment survey to verify how the course was, and how they would improve it.
-Comunication Skills: Student must achieve a good communication level on these topics (both oral and writing skills) by the use of correct and appropriate terminology.
-Learning Skills: Lectures, the cooperation with tutors, the use of books and the lab experience will allow student to achieve a good knowledge on cell features and animal tissues.
PLANT BIOLOGY AND PHARMACEUTICAL BOTANY:
This course aims at providing the students with the knowledge of the key features and aspects of plant cells and plant tissues in order to allow them to identify and distinguish herbal drugs and medicinal plants and the relevant use of such in health, pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields. These goals will be achieved by lectures and lab activities.
Knowledge and understanding: The students will achieve a good knowledge of the basic features of the plant cells, plant tissues and pharmaceutical botany rudiments, and, in addition, will be able to master the instruments.
Applying knowledge and understanding: During the lab activities, the students will be involved in using lab instruments and histological atlas for a correct classification of plant tissues. Attendance in lab activities is mandatory for the purposes of the exams. Lab experience will be focused on the techniques explained during the lectures. In addition to the above, the students will acquire the basic knowledge for the identification of medicinal plants.
Communication skills: Student will achieve a good communication level on the topics in question (both oral and writing skills) and master the use of the correct and appropriate terminology.
Making judgements: during the course, all students will be required to take an intermediate test aimed at assessing the correct progression of their knowledge, and, where necessary, possible gaps will be filled in through the appropriately re-integrations and re-evaluations.
basic chemistry and physics
5+1 CFU; 40 hours of lectures + 12 hours of laboratory:
Cytology – Chemistry of living matter: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. The cell as the basic unit of living organisms: shape, dimensions, organization; prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. How to prepare samples for compound light microscope(fixing, inclusion and cutting , staining; the cell coltures. Immunohistochemistry. Structure and organization of cell membrane and transport mechanisms throw it. Cytoplasm: general organization, structure and functioning of cytoplasmic organelles (ribosomes, Golgi apparatus, rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER), lysosomes, peroxisomes, mitochondria). Vesicle functioning: mechanisms of endocytosis and exocytosis. Cytoskeleton and its composition, cellular mobility. Methods of adhesion and communication within cells . The nucleus: nuclear envelope, nucleoplasm e nucleoskeleton. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic genome. Chromatin and cromosomes. Cellular cycle: phase G1, S, G2; phase M: mitosis. How cellular cycle is controlled, necrosis and apoptosis. Sexual reproduction: meiosis and gametogenesis.
Histology: Epithelial tissue: simple and stratified epithelium, squamous, cuboidal and columnar; exocrine and endocrine glands. Connective tissue: loose and dense connective tissue, cartilage, bone, blood and limph. Muscle tissue: skeletal striated muscle, cardiac striated muscle, smooth muscle. Nervous tissue: neuron and glial cells, nerve fiber. The synapsis.
Laboratory syllabus: Module of 1 CFU, (12 hours)
Attendance in lab activities is required for the exam. During lab activities students will be involved in using light microscope and histological atlas for a correct classification of animal tissues. Lab experience will be focused on the study of animal tissues, described during the lectures. In particular all steps for prepare sample for light microscope will be described and showed and each student will prepare a blood smear. Moreover student will learn the methods for cultivate blood cells and each student will cultivate blood cells with the goal to obtain chromosome preparations.
PLANT BIOLOGY AND PHARMACEUTICAL BOTANY:
Course: 4+2 CFU:
32 hours of lectures;
24 hours of laboratory;
Lecture syllabus – 4 CFU (32 ore): Introduction: the study of Plant Biology. Plant molecules. Plant cells: structure and growth. Plant tissues. Plant organs: the leaf, the root, the stem, the woody stem. Life cycle and reproduction. Energy metabolism: photosynthesis and respiration. Water movement and nutrient transport. Plant nutrition and soil. Development, morphogenesis and hormones. Response to the environment: tropisms and circadian rhythms. Plant morphology and herbal drugs. Pharmaceutical botany elements. Monographs of some medicinal and aromatic plants.
Laboratory syllabus - 2 CFU (24 hours): Attendance in lab activities is mandatory for the purposes of the exam. During lab activities, the students will be involved in using microscope and histological atlas for a correct classification of plant tissues and the identification of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs).
-Lectures with power points, short videos and animations.
-Laboratory experience with the support of microscope equipped with a monitor which allows students to study and identify the animal tissues. Each student prepares a blood smear. Moreover student learns the methods for cultivate blood cells and each student cultivates blood cells with the goal to obtain chromosome preparations.
PLANT BIOLOGY AND PHARMACEUTICAL BOTANY:
Lectures with ppt, short videos and animations; Laboratory experience with the support of instruments, which allows students to examine and identify the plant tissues and morphological aspects of medicinal plants.
Verification of learning
-Final oral exam
-Half course test
-Laboratory test (animal and plant tissue identification by light microscope)
EVALUATION CRITERIA FOR LEARNING ASSESSMENT
The final grade takes into account several factors:
Quality of the knowledge, skills, competences:
a) appropriateness, accuracy and consistency of knowledge
b) appropriateness, accuracy and consistency of abilities
c) appropriateness, accuracy and consistency of ability to apply knowledge and understanding
a) Ability of expression;
b) Proper use of the specific language of the discipline;
c) Logical skills and inherent consequentiality in communicating;
d) Ability to connect different subjects by finding the common points and establish a consistent overall design, i.e. taking care of structure, organization and logical connections of speech;
f) Ability to summarize also through the use of specific symbolism of each discipline and graphic expression of ideas and concepts, for example in form of formulas, schemes, equations.
Availability to exchange and interact with the teacher during the interview.
a) critical thinking;
b) ability of self-evaluation.
Consequently, the judgment can be:
a) Sufficient (from 18 to 20/30)
The candidate demonstrates little acquisition of theoretical knowledge, superficial level, many gaps. Modest communicative abilities, but still sufficient to support a coherent dialogue, logical capacity and consequentiality in fitting the subjects of elementary level; poor capacity of synthesis and rather stunted ability of graphical expression, scanty interaction with the teacher during the interview.
b) Moderate (21 to 23)
The applicant demonstrates a moderate acquisition of knowledge but lack of expatiation, a few gaps; communicative abilities more than sufficient to support a coherent dialogue; acceptable mastery of the scientific language, logical capacity and consequentiality in fitting the subjects of moderate complexity, good enough capacity of synthesis and acceptable ability of graphical expression.
c) Good (24 to 26)
The candidate demonstrates a rather large wealth of knowledge, moderate in-depth, with small gaps; satisfactory mastery of the communicative abilities and meaningful scientific language; dialogical ability and critical thinking well detectable, good capacity of synthesis and more than acceptable ability of graphical expression.
d) Very Good (27 to 29)
The candidate demonstrates a very extensive wealth of notions, high in-depth, with marginal gaps; remarkable ability in communicating and high mastery of scientific language; remarkable dialogical capacity, good competence and relevant aptitude for logical synthesis, high capacity of synthesis and graphical expression.
e) Excellent (30)
The candidate demonstrates a wealth of very extensive and in-depth knowledge, irrelevant gaps, high capacity and high mastery in communicating through the scientific language; excellent dialogical ability and marked aptitude to make connections among different subjects, excellent ability to synthesize and very familiar with the graphical expression.
The praise is attributed to the candidates clearly above average, and whose notional, expressive, conceptual, logical limits, if any, as a whole are completely irrelevant.
COLOMBO R., OLMO E., Biologia. Cellula e tessuti. Edi-ermes 2014.
other recommended books: ROSATI P. e C. COLOMBO, 1999 “La cellula”, “I tessuti”, edi-ermes; Bonfanti et al., “citologia & istologia”, II ed., IDELSON GNOCCHI, 2010; ALBERTS et al., 2009 "Biologia molecolare della cellula", Zanichelli.
-R.F. EVERT, S.E EICHHORN, La Biologia delle piante di Raven. Ed. Zanichelli, Bologna, 2013.
-E. MAUGINI et al. Manuale di Botanica Farmaceutica, VIII ed. Piccin, Padova, 2006
-A. SPERANZA, G.L. CALZONI, Struttura delle piante in immagini. Ed. Zanichelli, Bologna, 1996.
-A. BRUNI, C. BICCHI, R. BRUNI, F. POLI, L. PISTELLI, D. ROSSI, G. SACCHETTI, M. SERAFINI, Biologia farmaceutica: biologia vegetale, botanica farmaceutica, fitochimica. Pearson Italia, Milano, 2014
All required books can be consulted in the library, while histological atlas will be available during laboratory activities.