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First Semester 
Teaching style
Lingua Insegnamento

Informazioni aggiuntive

Course Curriculum CFU Length(h)
[30/46]  PRIMARY TEACHER EDUCATION [46/00 - Ord. 2011]  PERCORSO COMUNE 9 70


The objective of course, to be obtained through the frequency of lessons, the critical analysis of the texts and insights through the suggested readings, is to allow the student to gain experience and consolidate theoretical basis about the issues related to the teaching of natural sciences, and in particular environmental education, and the scientific and technical dissemination of ecological disciplines.


The student must have basic cultural requirements that will allow the understanding of topics related to the natural sciences and the environmental education.
Knowledge in basic natural sciences with regard to the specific language understanding in the context of Environmental education and natural sciences didactics.


1- Basic Concepts and definition of natural sciences;

2- History and development of the natural sciences;

3- The teaching of natural sciences in Europe, Italy and Sardinia;

4- Educating for science:
a. the complexity of the scientific construction;
b. the contribution from the historical-epistemological reflection;
c. the pupil as a subject of knowledge;

5- The changes taking place in environmental education base:
a. environmental education and learning models;
b. from the behaviorist view that cognitive;
c. generic and scientific knowledge: similarities and differences;
d. interactions between general knowledge and science;

6- Cognitive theories in environmental education;
a. cognitive models;
b. knowledge as construction and mediation;
c. guidelines of educational research;

7- Materials and methods for the analysis of scientific data;

8- Methods of teaching of natural sciences and environmental education in comparison;

Program of Laboratory of Natural and Environmental Sciences (Maria Silvia Pinna) is so articulated:

Visit to the Hortus Botanicus Karalitanus;

In situ and ex situ conservation - Visit to the Sardinian Germplasm Bank (BG-SAR);

Field excursion in the natural interest area of Cagliari (Capo S. Elia-Sella del Diavolo promontory);

Visit to the Zoological Museum of University of Cagliari;

Field excursion in the natural interest area of Cagliari (Molentargius-Saline Regional Nature Park).

Teaching Methods

The course will take place during the 1st semester of the fourth year. It includes frontal lessons by using PowerPoint presentations, seminars and visits to museums (60 hours 8 CFU) + 1 CFU (10 hours) of laboratory activities.

Verification of learning

The evaluation will be done through an oral test that will be conducted to verify if the student has the knowledge about the course topics, skills and abilities to the synthesis and the appropriateness of the language.

The assessment of suitability for the Laboratory is carried out by verifying the attendance at least 80% of the hours by the students.

The final score is given in thirties and takes into account the following factors:
1. Quality of knowledge, skills, skills possessed and / or manifested:
a) appropriateness, accuracy and congruency of knowledge;
b) appropriateness, accuracy and congruency of expertise;
c) appropriateness, accuracy and congruency of skills.

2. Exhibition Mode:
a) Expressive capacity;
b) proper use of the specific language of the learning issue;
c) logic and consequentiality capacity in fitting contents;
d) Ability to link different topics by finding common ground and establishing a coherent overall design, that is taking care of the structure, organization and logical connections in the exhibition's speech;
e) Synthesis capacity.

3. Relational quality:
Availability to the exchange and interaction with the teacher during the interview.

4. Personal qualities:
a) Critical thinking;
b) self-assessment skills.

The final score will be hence:
a) Insufficient (less than 18/30)
Candidate is unable to muster the minimum notions about the topics addressed in the course, with moderate expressive capacities, insufficient to sustain a coherent dialogue, scarce ability of synthesis and a lack of interaction with the teacher during the interview.

b) Sufficient (from 18 to 20/30):
Candidate shows to have poor acquisition of theoretical knowledge, superficial level of preparation, many gaps. Modest communicative abilities, logical capacity and consequentiality at an elementary level; basic ability of critical thinking; poor capacity of synthesis and poor ability of interaction with the teacher during the interview.

c) Moderate (21 to 23/30):
Candidate shows to have moderate acquisition of knowledge but lack of deepening, a few gaps; expressive abilities more than enough to sustain a consistent dialogue; acceptable mastery of scientific language; logical capacity and consequentiality in fitting moderate complex arguments; more than enough capacity of synthesis.

c) Good (24 to 26/30):
Candidate shows to have large wealth of knowledge, moderate deepening, with few gaps; satisfactory expressive capabilities and significant mastery of scientific language; dialogic skills and well detectable scientific lexicon; good ability to synthesize.

d) Outstanding (27 to 29/30):
Candidate shows to have very extensive wealth of notions, high deepening, with marginal gaps; remarkable ability in communicating with an appropriate scientific language; remarkable dialogical capacity, good skills and relevant aptitude for logic synthesis; high capacity for synthesis.

e) Excellent (30/30):
Candidate shows to have very extensive and deepened knowledge, any irrelevant gaps; high capacity and high expressive mastery of scientific language; dialogic excellent ability, aptitude to make connections between different subjects; excellent ability to synthesize.

The praise is attributed to candidates that exhibit a degree of complete preparation and an appropriate use of the specific lexicon.


Aquilini E., 1999 – Il ruolo del linguaggio nel passaggio dai concetti di senso comune ai concetti scientifici. Insegnare, 11-12: 34-37.
Basosi D. & Lachina L., 2000 – L’insegnamento della biologia nella scuola dell’obbligo. Insegnare, 9: 43-46.
Brown H., 1984 – La nuova filosofia della scienza. Laterza, Bari.
Cavallini G., 1995 – La formazione dei concetti scientifici. La Nuova Italia, Firenze.
Driver R., 1988 – L’allievo come scienziato? Zanichelli, Bologna.
Ferrari C., 2001 – Biodiversità dall’analisi alla gestione. Zanichelli Editore, Bologna.
Geymonat L. & Giorello G., 1986 – Le ragioni della scienza. Laterza, Bari.
Grimellini Tomasini N. & Segrè G., 1991 – Conoscenze scientifiche: le rappresentazioni mentali negli studenti. La Nuova Italia, Firenze.
Helmes D.H., 1990 – Laboratorio di Biologia. Zanichelli, Bologna.
Longo C., 1998 – Didattica della Biologia. La Nuova Italia, Firenze.
Padoa Schioppa E., 2015 - Metodi e strumenti per l'insegnamento e l'apprendimento della biologia. Edises, Napoli.
Pontecorvo C., Ajello A.M. & Zucchermaglio C., 1991 – Discutendo si impara. La Nuova Italia, Firenze.
Santovito G., 2015 – Insegnare la biologia ai bambini. Carocci Editore, Roma.
Primack R.B., 2003 – Conservazione della natura. Zanichelli editore, Bologna.
Tinbergen N., 1998 – Naturalisti curiosi, l’affascinante mondo degli animali. Rizzoli, Milano.
Trinchero M., 1970 – La logica della scoperta scientifica. Einaudi, Torino.
Wilson E.O., 2009 – La diversità della vita. Bur, Milano.

More Information

Students with special needs may benefit from a Disabled Office
( that certifies their difficulties in order to arrange individualized programs and exams.
The teachers (Gianluigi Bacchetta e Maria Silvia Pinna) receive every day, after a telephone appointment (tel. 070-6753508) at the Botanical Gardens (V.le Sant'Ignazio da Laconi, 11-13).

Questionnaire and social

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