||Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ agonists commonly used as insulin-sensitizing drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In the last decade, PPAR-γ agonists have received increasing attention for their neuroprotective properties displayed in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD), likely related to the anti-infammatory activity of these compounds. Recent studies indicate that neuroinflammation, specifically reactive microglia, plays important roles in PD pathogenesis. Moreover, after the discovery of infiltrating activated Limphocytes in the substantia nigra (SN) of PD patients, most recent research supports a role of immune-mediated mechanisms in the pathological process leading to chronic neuroinflammation and dopaminergic degeneration. PPAR-γ are highly expressed in cells of both central and peripheral immune systems, playing a pivotal role in microglial activation as well as in monocytes and T cells differentiation, in which they act as key regulators of immune responses. Here, we review preclinical evidences of PPAR-γ-induced neuroprotection in experimental PD models and highlight relative anti-inflammatory mechanisms involving either central or peripheral immunomodulatory activity. Specific targeting of immune functions contributing to neuroinflammation either directly (central) or indirectly (peripheral) may represent a novel therapeutic approach for disease modifying therapies in PD.