||Association analysis of candidate genes may represent a strategy for clarifying the genetic components involved in bipolar disorder. Polymorphism at dopamine receptor genes DRD2, DRD4, and dopamine and serotonin transporter genes (DAT, SERT) has been used in previous association studies. Some authors have reported positive association between certain alleles and bipolar disorder, using the case-control design. In this family-based association study of DRD2, DRD4, DAT, and SERT, the distribution of parental nontransmitted alleles was compared with that of alleles transmitted to 53 Sardinian probands suffering from bipolar disorder. The transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) was used to detect any disproportionate transmission of alleles by heterozygous parents to affected children. No differences were found between the allele distribution of polymorphisms at DRD2, DRD4, DAT, and SERT in probands and parental nontransmitted chromosomes. TDT did not reveal any difference between transmitted and nontransmitted alleles. Our results do not support the hypothesis of a role for DRD2, DRD4, DAT, or SERT in bipolar disorder. Previously reported positive associations between DRD2 or SERT and bipolar disorder were conceivably due to stratification dependent on the case-control design, even though our sample might have failed to detect small associations due to limited power.