MC/0628 - ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
Academic Year 2022/2023
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GIANFRANCA CARTA (Tit.)
- Teaching style
- Lingua Insegnamento
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The course aims to present a general and integrated view of anatomy, histology and physiology to provide the student with the tools to acquire:
- basic knowledge and understanding of the organization, structure and function of organs and systems of the human body and the physiological mechanisms underlying their functioning. Integration of systems in relation to homeostatic mechanisms;
- applying skills: to apply and link the acquired knowledge and skills, be able to apply them to "new" situations for the acquisition of theoretical and operational skills that meet quality professional standards;
- communication skills: to learn the specific scientific language to express and argue with disciplinary language the knowledge using the appropriate terminology;
- autonomy of judgment: to develop critical thinking skills and independent judgment, be able to make connections among different topics, in the field of anatomy and physiology, by integrating and updating knowledge and skills to assess the general correctness for its training needs.
Strong background in Biochemistry
General anatomy: principles of anatomy terminology; the organization of the human body; systems and apparatus; structure of the organs.
General information on bones, joints, muscles: morphology of the skeleton, joints and muscles of the head, trunk and limbs.
Cardiovascular system: heart, large venous and arterial vessels, main lymphatic centers.
Digestive, respiratory, urinary and genital apparatus.
Central Nervous System: spinal cord, encephalic trunk, cerebellum, diencephalon and telencephalon.
Peripheral Nervous System: General Spinal and encephalic nerves.
Generalities of the Autonomous Nervous System
Cytology: generalities on the structure and functions of the eukaryotic cell and its cytoplasmic organelles
Histology. Histological techniques and basics of microscopy: optical and electronic microscope.
Epithelial tissue: structural and functional classification, basement membrane, cell junctions, structure and classification of lining epithelia and glandular epithelia.
Connective tissue: cells and intercellular substance; amorphous matrix and fibers; functions of connective tissue and its classification; adipose tissue. Cartilage tissue: structural and functional characteristics; types of cartilage; perichondrium. Bone tissue: cells and intercellular substance; compact and spongy bone; osteon; periosteum and endosteum; morpho-functional characteristics of the bone. Ossification.
Blood: plasma, figurative elements and their functions.
Muscle tissue: morpho-functional organization of skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle.
Nervous tissue: general organization of the nervous system; the neuron and glia cells, conduction of the impulse; the nerves.
Oral cavity and associated structures. Tongue and taste buds, salivary glands, teeth and supporting tissues, odontogenesis and tooth maturation.
Concept of homeostasis
Energy balance and its hormonal control
Homeostatic systems for the control of body composition
General information on the gastro-intestinal system. Overview on the digestion of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins.
General information on the cardiovascular system: overview on the properties of the contractile and conducting myocardial cells, activity, excitability and automatism. Cardiac cycle, regulation of cardiac output. Systemic circulation: arteries, capillaries and veins. Overview of mechanisms for controlling cardiac and circulatory function. Hormonal blood pressure regulation.
Homeostatic control of blood glucose and lipids
Overview on the respiratory system: general functions, respiratory mechanics, structures and physical parameters involved. Pulmonary ventilation and circulation. Pulmonary and tissue gaseous exchanges. Alveolar air. Transport of blood gases.
Lectures with slides in PowerPoint format. Guided discussion on the exposed topics and recalls to physiological conditions. In order to any specific educational needs related to the epidemiological situation, teaching will be provided according to what will be established by the University.
Verification of learning
Knowledge and skills acquired by the student will be verified through an oral examination or, if possible, in the first session at the end of the course, a semi-structured written test, consisting of a questionnaire with multiple-choice questions and brief open questions, followed by an oral exam consisting of the critical discussion of the written exam during which the student will have the opportunity to confirm or improve his / her grade. On subsequent dates the examination will be oral. It will be evaluated: acquired knowledge, knowledge of disciplinary language, ability to relate concepts and knowledge, exhibition skills.
Fisiologia, C. L, Stanfield – V edizione, Edises.
Principi di fisiologia, L. Zocchi - II edizione, Edises.
Anatomia Umana - Elementi, Arcuri - Edi-Ermes
Atlante Anatomia, F. H. Netter - 6 edizione, Edra
Elementi di istologia, R. Di Pietro - II edizione, Edises
Students will be provided with PowerPoint presentations to support teaching and to supplement the texts adopted