1326 - PHYSIOLOGY
Academic Year 2022/2023
Free text for the University
GIANFRANCA CARTA (Tit.)
- Teaching style
- Lingua Insegnamento
|[40/35] SPORT AND EXERCISE SCIENCE||[35/00 - Ord. 2019] PERCORSO COMUNE||8||48|
The Physiology course aims to present a general and integrated vision of Physiology, from the biochemical/cellular level to the whole organism, to provide the student with the tools to:
-to know and understand the regulation of the mechanisms underlying the homeostatic processes of organs and systems and in particular the physiological and metabolic bases of the regulation and adaptation to motion.
Specifically, the student will have as its main objectives:
-applying knowledge and understanding: to link the acquired knowledge and skills of the general physiological functions of the organism, be able to apply them and to interpret the most common parameters of functional evaluation for the acquisition of skills that meet quality professional standards;
-communication skills: to learn the specific scientific language that allows to express and argue with disciplinary language the knowledge using the appropriate terminology;
-making judgements: to develop critical thinking skills and independent judgment in order to make connections among different topics, to evaluate the general correctness of an argument on physiological functions by integrating the acquired knowledge;
-learning skills: to acquire basic knowledge about the general organization and functionality of the main apparatus and control mechanisms by which the body acts in different contexts. To acquire self-assessment skills of its own knowledge and be able to update its competences in the field of physiology for the training needs.
Strong background in Biochemistry and Anatomy
General and motor neurophysiology - Structure and transport in cell membranes. Excitable membranes and ion channels. Rest potential and action potential. Synapses. Receptors. General structure, organization and functions of the central and peripheral nervous system, somatic and autonomous. Integration of excitatory and inhibitory nerve signals. Reflexes. Nervous control of movement.
Physiology of the muscular system - Organization of the muscle tissue. Mechanism of muscle contraction, excitation-contraction coupling, regulation of strength development, types of muscle fibers. Energy in muscle contraction. Muscle adaptation to training
Cardiocirculatory physiology - Physiology of myocardial contractile and conducting cells. Electrical and rhythmic activity of the heart, excitability and automatism. Cardiac cycle. Pressure and volumetric changes in the heart chambers and large arteries. Cardiac output adjustment. Physiological basis of the electrocardiogram. The circulatory system: organization and functions of the vessels. Control mechanisms of the cardiac and circulatory function. Cardiovascular functions during physical activity.
Respiratory physiology - Functional anatomy of the lung and airways. Lung volumes and capacity. Respiratory mechanics. Breathing control. Gaseous exchanges at pulmonary and tissue level. Transport of respiratory gases in the blood. Changes in respiratory activity at various exercise intensities.
Renal physiology - the nephron and its functions, filtration, resorption, secretion and excretion. Mechanisms of concentration of urine. Hydro-saline and acid-base balances. Neuro-humoral control of kidney functions. Renal endocrine functions and regulation of blood pressure.
Physiology of the endocrine system - General characteristics and principles of functioning of the endocrine glands. Hormonal classes, synthesis, release and transport. Main mechanisms of hormone action. Effects on target cells. Hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Main hormones and their physiological activities. Growth hormones and control of body growth. Thyroid hormones and metabolism control. Pancreatic hormones and glycemia control. Functions of adrenal hormones.
Digestive physiology: organization of the alimentary canal and its glands (liver and pancreas). Motility, secretion, digestion and absorption. Overview on the digestion of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins.
Physiological response to physical exercise: overview of adaptations and regulations of different organs involved.
Elements of bioenergetics of physical exercise. Biochemical and metabolic bases.
Class lectures and interactive didactics with the use of Power Point presentations that will be made available to students. Seminars. Guided discussion on the topics discussed and recalls to physiological conditions. In order to meet any specific educational needs related to the epidemiological situation, teaching will be provided according to what will be established by the University.
Verification of learning
Ongoing optional trial on the topics discussed in the first half of the course with correction - discussion. Knowledge and skills acquired by the student will be verified through an oral examination or if possible, in the first call at the end of the course, a written exam, consisting of a questionnaire with multiple-choice and brief open questions, followed by an oral exam. The oral exam is a critical discussion of the written exam and an opportunity to confirm or improve his / her vote. On subsequent dates the examination will be oral. It will be evaluated: acquired knowledge, knowledge of disciplinary language, ability to relate concepts and knowledge, exhibition skills.
The final mark considers several factors:
Quality of knowledge, skills possessed; appropriateness, fairness and congruence of knowledge and skills.
a) Expressive ability;
b) Proper use of the specific language of the discipline;
c) Logical and consequential capacities in content linking;
d) Ability to connect different topics by finding common points and establishing a coherent overall design;
e) Ability to synthesize also through the use of the proper symbolism of the discipline.
Relational and personal qualities, critical spirit and self-assessment ability.
The judgment can be:
a) No sufficient
The candidate shows insufficient preparation in most of the topics addressed during the oral exam.
b) Sufficient (from 18 to 20/30)
The candidate demonstrates little acquisition of theoretical knowledge, superficial level, many gaps. Modest communicative abilities, but still sufficient to support a coherent dialogue; logical skills and consequentiality in fitting the subjects of elementary level.
c) Moderate (21 to 23)
The candidate demonstrates a moderate acquisition of knowledge, but poorly detailed, a few gaps; communicative abilities more than sufficient to support a coherent dialogue; acceptable mastery of the scientific language, logical capacity and consequentiality in fitting the subjects of moderate complexity, good enough capacity of synthesis and acceptable ability of graphical expression.
d) Good (from 24 to 26)
The candidate demonstrates a rather broad wealth of knowledge, moderate in depth, with small gaps; satisfying expressive abilities and meaningful scientific language; dialogic ability and critical thinking well detectable; good capacity of synthesis.
e) Very good (from 27 to 29)
The candidate demonstrates a very extensive wealth of notions, well in-depth, with marginal gaps; remarkable abilities in communicating and high mastery of scientific language; remarkable dialogical ability, good competence and relevant aptitude for logical synthesis; high synthesis capabilities.
f) Excellent (30)
The candidate demonstrates a wealth of very extensive and in-depth knowledge, irrelevant gaps, high capacity and high mastery in communicating through the scientific language; excellent dialogical ability and marked aptitude to make connections among different topics, excellent ability to synthesize.
FISIOLOGIA C. L, Stanfield – V edizione, Edises.
FISIOLOGIA VANDER - E. P. Widmaier, H. Raff, K. T. Strang Casa Editrice Ambrosiana
FISIOLOGIA APPLICATA ALLO SPORT Aspetti energetici, nutrizionali e performance di William D. McArdle, Frank I. Katch, Victor L. Katch (III edizione) Casa Editrice Ambrosiana
Power Point presentations will be provided to the students