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Second Semester 
Teaching style
Lingua Insegnamento

Informazioni aggiuntive

Course Curriculum CFU Length(h)


At the end of the course, students will have learned the fundamental physical principles of radiation protection in some sectors of diagnostic imaging involving the worker, the population and the patient. They will have acquired knowledge of the quantities used in dosimetry and of ionizing radiation detection techniques as well as of the radiation protection legislation. Students will also have learned what quality protocol means and which parameters must be evaluated in order for a device to be considered suitable for use on the patient.
The knowledge mentioned above will be a fundamental basis to allow the student to acquire an ability to understand and interpret problems, inherent to their professional activity, and to solve them, as well as to acquire a study method based mainly on a technical / logical process that allows them to undertake, in total autonomy, subsequent studies and in-depth studies on higher-level topics always relevant to their profession.
Radioprotection Laboratory:
Knowledge and understanding:
At the end of the course the students will have learned which are the fundamental parameters to be controlled in the radiological equipment and which are the procedures to be used in order to reduce the exposures of the worker, the patient and the population.
Ability to apply knowledge and understanding:
With the use of appropriate instrumentation, students will be able to carry out measurements on the equipment and verify the usefulness of the protection systems.
Autonomy of judgment:
Students will be able to independently establish the suitability of use of a radiological equipment based on the assessments made. They will be able to evaluate the effectiveness of the protection systems.
Communication skills:
The preparation of written reports on the experiences carried out in the laboratory will allow students to acquire the ability to express concepts in a clear and rigorous way.
Learning ability:
Students will be able to deepen the topics covered in the course and to exploit them during the course of study and subsequent work.


Knowledge of basic physics and the physical bases of radiology.


Radiation protection and quality controls
The radiation
• Fundamental concepts.
• Ionizing and non-ionizing radiation, different types of RI, interaction of RI with matter.
• Radioactivity, definition of activity, radioactive decays, RIs in the environment
• Radiometric quantities, coefficients of the medium, dosimetric quantities
Detection and measurement of radiation
• Characteristics of the detectors: counting statistics; sensitivity, energy resolution; response function, detection efficiency, temporal resolution.
• Active and passive detectors. Gas, scintillation, solid state detectors. Personal dosimeters based on thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence.
Biological effects of ionizing radiation
• Chain of events and time scale. DNA as the main target of RI. The survival curve. The LET. Direct and indirect action, radiolysis of water, free radicals.
• DNA injury, damage repair. Definition of OER and RBE. Relationship between LET and RBE. The equivalent dose. Radiosensitivity of organs and tissues. The effective dose. Somatic, hereditary, deterministic, stochastic effects. Acute irradiation syndromes. Low dose risk estimation.

General principles of radiation protection (RP)
• Targets. International organizations. Exhibition categories. Exposed individuals. External and internal exposure.
• The principles of PR: justification, optimization, limitation of doses. Fixed or mobile means of protection and personal protective equipment. Means of dosimetric surveillance.

RP Legislation
• Current Italian legislation. RP of the patient and the worker. Rules on the PR of the worker and the population.

Diagnostic Reference Levels (LDR)
• Determination and measurement. LDR in radiodiagnostics, mammography, CT. Definitions and measurement of: ESD, DAP, CTDI, DLP.

General concepts on quality assurance and quality control (QC)
• Quality Assurance Program. Quality Manual. Procedures, operating instructions, documents, human resources. Quality assurance and QC.
• QC: types of tests: acceptance, status, constancy; types of controls: geometric and mechanical, source, detector, radiation protection checks.
Radiation protection laboratory:
The measures provided for by appropriate quality protocols will be carried out with adequate instruments
various radiological equipment, in particular Mammograph and Teleradiograph.
Environmental radiation protection measures will also be carried out.

Teaching Methods

With reference to the "Methods for providing teaching A.A. 2020/2021 ", on p. 12 of the General Manifesto of Studies states that “Teaching will be delivered simultaneously both face to face and online, thus outlining a mixed teaching that can be enjoyed in university classrooms but at the same time also remotely. At the beginning of the semester, the student will opt for face-to-face or remote teaching, the choice will be binding for the entire semester. If the number of students exceeds the capacity of the classrooms, determined on the basis of government provisions on health matters for the purpose of combating the Covid-19 pandemic, access to the educational facilities will be regulated through a shift system that will be communicated in due time to the interested students ".
During the lectures the teachers, also taking advantage of the small number of students, will encourage dialogue aimed at understanding the topics presented, possibly supported by multimedia tools.
Methods and techniques of distance didactic interaction:
the teacher-student communication will be supported by telematic means, including interaction via email and via the teacher's website or otherwise.
Compatibly with the emergency condition due to the Covid-19 pandemic, the Radiation Protection and Quality Controls module will take place with lectures, and the Radiation Protection Laboratory module will carry out with practical exercises in small groups in the laboratory.
Radiation protection laboratory:
Methods and techniques of didactic interaction in the presence of the teacher:
During the laboratory lessons, the teacher will encourage dialogue aimed at understanding the processes explained and will show the execution of the measurements in practice.
Remote teaching methods and techniques of interaction:
Teacher-student communication will be supported by telematic means, including interaction via email and the making available to students of the material on the teaching site.
Participation in at least 70% of the planned activities is mandatory.

Verification of learning

For the Radiation Protection and Quality Control module, the student's assessment includes an oral exam.
The evaluation is expressed out of thirty.
To pass the exam and therefore obtain a grade of not less than 18/30, the student must demonstrate that they have acquired sufficient knowledge of the course topics. To achieve a score of 30/30 cum laude, the student must instead demonstrate that he has acquired an excellent knowledge of all the topics covered during the course.
For the radiation protection laboratory module:
- Preparation of laboratory reports
- Exam in the sessions during the periods foreseen by the Faculty's didactic calendar. The exam consists in the execution of two laboratory tests and in the drafting of the relative report.
Registration for the exam takes place through an online procedure (ESSE3).
The evaluation of the reports will focus on:
- ability to carry out measurements;
- data processing;
- presentation of the results.
The evaluation of the practical exam will be based on:
- ability to carry out measurements;
- data processing;
- presentation of the results.
The evaluation is given by a suitability: suitable / unsuitable.


For the radiation protection and quality controls module:
-Radioprotezione di base : apparecchi radiologici con tensione di accelerazione inferiore a 400 KV / S. Sandri, M. D'Arienzo, A. Coniglio
-La Fisica in Medicina Nucleare – L. Marengo
-Fondamenti Fisici della Radioprotezione – M. Pelliccioni
- CEI standards
- Legislative Decrees
-European Guidelines on Conventional Radiology, Mammography and CT
-National and international protocols relating to quality measurements on equipment
Integration with the slides of the lessons provided by the teacher.
National and international protocols on equipment quality controls. In-depth material provided by the teacher.

More Information

Addresses of the teacher of the Integrated Course
Viviana Fanti - Department of Physics - Cittadella Universitaria di Monserrato. email: tel. 0706754869
Methods of receiving students:
By appointment to be requested by email.
Prerequisites for taking the exam:
Having followed the lessons

Questionnaire and social

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