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Professor
MONICA MARIA FRANCESCA PULIGHEDDU (Tit.)
FRANCESCA GINATEMPO
VANESSA GAVINUCCIA ZAPPINO
Period
Second Semester 
Teaching style
Convenzionale 
Lingua Insegnamento
ITALIANO 



Informazioni aggiuntive

Course Curriculum CFU Length(h)
[40/64]  NEUROPHYSIOPATHOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES [64/00 - Ord. 2020]  PERCORSO COMUNE 5 40

Objectives

"The aim of the course is to provide the fundamental knowledge necessary for understanding the principles of the acquisition and recording methods of the electroencephalographic signal (EEG), in a clinical both pediatric and adult settings, with particular reference to the genesis of the EEG signal and the physiopathological aspects of brain activity, adapted to different condition. The course aims to analyze the clinical conditions that require the application of electroencephalographic investigations and other diagnostic methods related to them, with particular reference to changes in EEG activity, both in basal conditions and during activation tests. The course also intends to provide the main technical knowledge relating to the different modes of operation, use and positioning of the various types of electrodes, the methods of connection and registration between them and the main types of artifacts found during the acquisition of the electroencephalographic signal. A further objective is to provide the basis for the management, execution and conduct of the electroencephalographic examination, even in critical recording conditions, both in adults and children "

KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING: At the end of the course, the student is expected to know: the bases of the physiological and pathological EEG, the clinical aspects in the application of the EEG and other related methods. The student will be able to recognize the unusual physiological graph elements and the normal EEG in adults and children and will also have to recognize the different pathological conditions It will include the salient steps necessary for the management of the EEG laboratory from patient acceptance to the end of the investigation, the closed-circuit recording systems and understand the relevant aspects of telemedicine.
APPLICATION SKILLS: At the end of the course, the student is expected to be able to:
Recognize the functions and limitations of different EEG recording techniques even in a hostile recording setting and manage a child in the laboratory. Apply the knowledge gained for the recognition and removal of artifacts
Apply the knowledge acquired on the different pathophysiological conditions and identify the specific EEG recording techniques in relation to the states of consciousness and neurological pathologie; organize the instrumental investigations of the EEG laboratory for adult and pediatric subjects. - Manage the interrogation in case of epileptic events and complications of the state of illness in an adult and pediatric environment
- AUTONOMY OF JUDGMENT: At the end of the course the student is expected to be able to read and critically evaluate the characteristics of the EEG traces in an adult and pediatric environment, choosing appropriate approaches for the minimization of disturbances not only at the level of acquisition but also processing. The student is also expected to be able to independently choose the best solution in relation to specific registration problems encountered.
COMMUNICATION SKILLS: the student will be able to carry out the pathophysiological process and the outcome of diagnostic procedures and therapeutic interventions in the field of brain pathologies. The student will be able to analyze the interpretation of electroencephalography in order to investigate the brain activity and to explain the theoretical notions necessary for the clinical interpretation of electroencephalographic patterns.
LEARNING SKILLS: the student will learn to acquire new information and implement their cultural background in a critical way through the consultation and critical interpretation of recent scientific literature in the field of electroncephalography of children and adults and will be able to analyze the recorded signals through the interpretation of the tracks presented and discussed during the course of the lessons.

Prerequisites


Knowledge of the topics covered in the Electronics and instrumentation module for biomedical investigations is required

Contents

The course intends to provide the main technical knowledge relating to the different modes of operation, use and positioning of the various types of electrodes, the methods of connection and registration between them and the main types of artifacts found during the acquisition of the electroencephalographic signal. A further objective is to provide the basis for the management, execution and conduct of the electroencephalographic examination, even in critical recording conditions, both in adults and children "
In details
Neurophysiopathology 2 (basic EEG)
- Recording techniques
- The artifacts
- The unusual physiological graph elements
- the normal EEG in adults
- EEG in major focal / generalized epileptic syndromes ILAE classification - focal and generalized seizures
- The EEG in disturbances of consciousness and comas
- EEG in encephalitis and brain lesions
- EEG anomalies
- Activation tests

ELECTRO NEUROPHYSIOPATHOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES 3 (EEG)

- The salient steps in the EEG laboratory from when the patient enters to when he leaves.
- The different instrumental investigations of the EEG laboratory.
- The sampling of the bioelectrical signal.
- Various types of electrode and supernumerary electrodes.
- Artifacts and related removal measures.
- Closed circuit recording system.
- Outline of telemedicine.
- Behavior of the technician in case of crisis.
- Outline of polygraphy.

PEDIATRIC ELECTRO-NEUROPHYSIOPATHOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES 1

- Methods for managing the pediatric patient and family members
- How to organize the instrumental investigations of the EEG laboratory in the patient. pediatric
- What electrodes for a child?
- Activation tests in the pediatric patient.
- Critical questioning in the child
- Clinical cases difficult to manage in the laboratory

Teaching Methods

Lectures in presence with examples, guided experiences with real instrumentation aimed at the acquisition with practical examples of the explained concepts. Practical exercises on the positioning of the electrodes (pre-wired headphones, zygomatic, supraorbital, emg of the deltoid and flexo-extensor muscles of the carpus, ecg and thoracic respirogram).
Practical exercises in the interpretation and analysis of electroencephalographic traces aimed at identifying and recognizing physiological and pathological EEG activities. Practical exercises of identification and recognition of the main types of artifacts that can be recorded on the electroencephalographic traces.

Verification of learning

The number of sessions is defined in accordance with the faculty regulations. Extra exams for “out of course” can be requested from the teacher for justified reasons.
The integrated course includes a joint oral test on the three modules of the course. During the test, questions will be asked to evaluate the candidate's ability to express himself correctly in relation to the subject, his ability to expose the concepts presented and to apply his knowledge assessed during the exam through the ability to interpretation of the electroencephalographic traces, presented to the candidate in the form of a practical test, with a focus aimed at identifying the main physiological, pathological, and artificial EEG activities.
The evaluation is objective, based on the correctness percentage of each answer (which is associated with a fixed score, not known to the candidate, based on the level of difficulty). The final grade will correspond to the weighted average of the results obtained in the three modules. The evaluation will be expressed out of… /30.

Texts

Course notes, provided free of charge to students through the course website. For further information it is possible to consult the following texts:
"Theoretical practical manual of Electroencephalography" Author O. Mecarelli, Ed. Wolters Kluwer Health Italia, 2009.
Scheffer IE, et al., ILAE classification of the epilepsies: Position paper of the ILAE Commission for Classification and Terminology. Epilepsy. 2017 Apr; 58 (4): 512-521. doi: 10.1111 / epi.13709.

More Information

How to register for exams: online registration on the University website
attendance obligation: 75% of attendance signatures.

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