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Second Semester 
Teaching style
Lingua Insegnamento

Informazioni aggiuntive

Course Curriculum CFU Length(h)
[50/22]  PHARMACY [22/00 - Ord. 2020]  PERCORSO COMUNE 10 80


KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING SKILLS: the course aims at providing students with a thorough understanding of the physiological and molecular mechanisms at the cellular level and subsequently at the level of the systems of the human body.
APPLICATION ABILITY: the course provides the acquisition of application skills for the evaluation of the different aspects of cellular and systemic physiology of the human body.
JUDGEMENT: Interpretation and evaluation of theoretical and experimental data.
COMMUNICATION ABILITY: Ability to communicate clearly and with appropriate language about ideas and problem solutions through correct writing and oral forms in Italian and other languages, using the knowledge and skills acquired.
LEARNING ABILITY: Autonomous consulting of sources for continuing education related to the discipline (databases, scientific publications and information sources accredited at national and international level).


The basic knowledge necessary to be able to profitably attend the course concerns notions of physics, biochemistry and human anatomy. In particular, the human anatomy exam is required to have been successfully passed.


The concept of homeostasis and its regulation

The cell, the plasma membrane and their functions. Transmembrane transports: active, passive, osmosis, endocytosis, exocytosis. Volume and composition of the body's liquid compartments. Signal transduction, membrane receptors, second messengers and regulation of gene expression

The neuron. Genesis and conduction of action potential. Synaptic transmission. Neurotransmitters and their receptors. Sensory receptors. The somatosensory system. The special senses. Integrative functions of the nervous system. The hypothalamus and its functions. The autonomic nervous system.

General characteristics and classes of hormones. Endocrine functions of the hypothalamus. The pituitary gland. Energy metabolism and the endocrine pancreas. Hormonal regulation of body growth. Hormonal regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism. The thyroid. The adrenal glands. The gonads.

Physiology of skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle.

Electrical properties of the myocardium: the conduction system and the electrocardiogram. Mechanical properties of the myocardium and the cardiac cycle. Nervous and hormonal control of the myocardium. Properties of the vascular system. Blood pressure. Blood and its functions.

Introduction to the respiratory system. Mechanics of the lungs and chest wall. Ventilation, perfusion and ventilation-perfusion relationships. Transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Nervous and chemical control of the breath. Non-respiratory functions of the lungs.

Functional anatomy and regulation of the gastrointestinal tract. Cephalic, oral, esophageal, gastric, small intestine and colon phases of the integrated response to food intake. Gastrointestinal hormones. Gastrointestinal secretions. The accessory glands to the gastrointestinal tract: salivary glands, exocrine pancreas, gallbladder and liver. The enterohepatic circle.

Kidney function. Transport of water and solutes along the nephron: the function of the renal tubules. Control of osmolality and the volume of body fluids. Potassium homeostasis. Regulation of the acid-base balance.

Energy metabolism: endocrine control of nutrient storage during the post-absorption phase and fasting. Energy balance and regulation of nutrient intake. Food and nutrients. Food consumption and diets.
THE IMMUNE SYSTEM: anatomical notes. Immune response. Innate and acquired immunity

Teaching Methods

The course includes 80 hours of frontal lessons which will be provided in accordance with the "A.A. 2020/2021 ", inserted on page 12 of the "Manifesto Generale degli Studi", which establishes that “Teaching will be delivered mainly in presence, and integrated with online strategies, in order to guarantee their use in an innovative and inclusive way."

Verification of learning

At the end of each topic students will be involved in a discussion with the teacher, through the aid of multiple-choice questions, in order to verify the learning level.
The assignment of the final grade takes into account several factors: knowledge, reasoning ability and integration of individual knowledge, expressive capacity, the use of the appropriate terminology and therefore the degree of expertise acquired.
Final Judgement. The final mark takes into account several factors.
Quality of knowledge, ability, skills possessed and/or manifested:
a) appropriateness, accuracy and consistency of knowledge
b) appropriateness, accuracy and consistency of skills
Exhibition mode:
a) expressiveness;
b) appropriate use of the specific language of the discipline;
c) logical and consequential capacity in the fitting of the contents;
d) ability to link different topics by finding common points and establish a coherent overall design, that is taking care of the structure, organization and logical connections to the exhibition's speech;
e) ability to perform synthesis also by means of the use of symbolism typical of the subject and the graphic expression of notions and concepts, for example in the form of charts and diagrams.
Relational qualities:
Availability to exchange and interaction with the teacher during the interview.
Personal qualities:
a) critical thinking;
b) ability of self-assessment.
Consequently, the judgment can be:
a) Sufficient (from 18 to 20/30)
The candidate demonstrates little knowledge acquired, superficial level, many gaps. Modest expression ability, but still sufficient to sustain a coherent conversation; logic skills and consequentiality in the linking of the elementary level topics; poor ability to synthesize and graphic expression skills rather stunted; poor interaction with the teacher during the interview.
b) Moderate (from 21 to 23/30)
The candidate demonstrates decent acquisition of knowledge but little depth, a few gaps; expressive abilities more than sufficient to sustain a coherent conversation; acceptable mastery of scientific language; logic skills and consequentiality in the linking of moderately complex topics; more than enough capacity for synthesis and expression of acceptable graphics capabilities.
c) Good (from 24 to 26/30)
The candidate demonstrates a wealth of notions rather broad, moderate depth, with small gaps; satisfactory expressive capabilities and significant mastery of scientific language; dialogic skills and critical spirit well detectable; good ability to synthesize and graphical expression capabilities more than acceptable.
d) Very good (from 27 to 29/30)
The candidate demonstrates a wealth of very extensive, in-depth knowledge, with marginal gaps; remarkable expressive capabilities and high mastery of scientific language; remarkable dialogic ability, good skills and relevant aptitude for logic synthesis; high ability for synthesis and graphic expression.
e) Excellent (30/30)
The candidate demonstrates a wealth of very extensive, in-depth knowledge, with possible irrelevant gaps; expressive high capacity and high mastery of scientific language; excellent dialogic ability, ability to make connections between different subjects; excellent ability to synthesize and very familiar with graphic expression.
Praise is attributed to candidates clearly above average, and whose possible limits of knowledge, expression, understanding and logics are entirely irrelevant as a whole.


1- FISIOLOGIA - dalle molecole ai sistemi integrati
Autori: E. Carbone, F. Cicirata, G. Aicardi
Editore: EDISES

Autori: Berne & Levy
Editore: CEA

3- FISIOLOGIA UMANA – un approccio integrato
Autori: D.U. Silverthorn
Editore: PEARSON

More Information

Registration for the final test must be done by the ESSE3 system and will be closed 4 days before the date of the test.
All information relating to the call (time, classroom, etc ....) will be provided to subscribers by electronic communication via e-mail.

Questionnaire and social

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