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First Semester 
Teaching style
Lingua Insegnamento

Informazioni aggiuntive

Course Curriculum CFU Length(h)
[40/39]  MEDICINE AND SURGERY [39/00 - Ord. 2015]  PERCORSO COMUNE 8 110


• To know the principles of good organization of the biomedical laboratory, accreditation systems.
• Tpo know the main methodologies applied to clinical analyzes and the metabolic changes induced by the most common pathologies.
• To nownow the basic techniques and the guiding criteria for the identification of pathogenic microorganisms.
• The student will acquire methodological and instrumental application skills to request and correctly interpret laboratory investigations with particular attention to the markers of the main organ failure and the main mechanisms of alteration of homeostasis. The student will acquire methodological and instrumental application skills to request and correctly interpret laboratory investigations with particular attention to infection markers and the reading of the antibiogram The student will acquire the ability to rationally and efficiently choose which laboratory tests to use among those available.
• The student will learn to critically interpret and compare new acquisitions related to laboratory tests
• The student will learn to expose the relevant data of laboratory tests. The student will be able to argue the contents of the course using the formalisms, language and vocabulary typical of the discipline. He will interact with the teacher by discussing the main points of the study program.
• The student will learn to acquire new information and to implement their cultural background in a critical way through the consultation and critical interpretation of recent national and international scientific literature.


The student must have acquired fundamental concepts and notions of Biochemistry, General Pathology an Microbiology


Clinical Biochemistry and Clinical Pathology
• Structure and organization of the medical laboratory.
• Types of test and their purposes, biological samples (blood, urine, stool, saliva, synovial fluid, liquor, sperm liquid) and their preservation.
• Quality Control in Clinical Pathology. Normative requirements. Italian Society of Clinical Pathology and Online Documentation.
• Interpretation of laboratory tests. Reference intervals, sensitivity, specificity, interfering factors, abnormal values.
• Inflammatory Biomarkers: VES, PCR, Electrophoresis Serum Protein.
• Biomarkers of Liver and bile ducts.
• Biomarkers of pancreas and intestinal function.
• Biomarkers of the cardiovascular system.
• Diagnosis and Monitoring of Diabetes Mellitus.
• Biomarkers of Kidney function.
• Urinalysis; other measurable parameters on urine sample (metals, abuse drugs, cathecholamine, etc.)
• Electrolyte analysis and acid-base balance (emogasanalysis).
• Biomarkers of neoplastic diseases.
• Biomarkers of erythropoiesis and anemia: hemochrome, blood smear, folic acid, Vit. B12.
• Biochemical tests for assessing iron metabolism.
• Biomarkers emocoagulation and fibrinolysis
• Laboratory tests during pregnancy.
• Laboratory tests in Geriatrics.
• Tests of hormones produced by thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal gland, gonads.
• Tests for autoimmune diseases.
* Essentials lab test
* Preoperatory test
• Biomarkers in "-omics" sciences.
* Lab Test ans COVID-19

Clinical Microbiology
General information on microbiological diagnostics.
The pre-analytical phase of testing:
• Suitable/unsuitable samples, collection, transport and specimen handling for bacteriological, mycological, parasitological and virological diagnostics; correct request for laboratory tests.
The analytical phase of testing:
• Direct testing: microscopic examination, cultivation on solid or liquid media, identification and antibiogram; immunologic and molecular methods for identification of bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites.
• Serological testing.
The post-analytical phase of testing.
A general overview of microbial disease diagnosis:
• Respiratory tract infections
• Urinary tract infections
• Genital Infections and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (MST)
• Infections of the gastrointestinal tract
• Infections of the central nervous system and sense organs
• Infections of the skin and soft tissues
• Infections of bones, muscles and joints
• Infections of wounds and abscesses
• Bloodstream infections
• Zoonoses and arthropod-borne infections
• Infections of the fetus and infant
• Viral infections of childhood and adolescence
• Diagnosis of Viral Hepatitis (A-E)
• Diagnosis and monitoring of HIV infection
• Healthcare-associated Infections (HAI)

Teaching Methods

The course consists of lectures with PowerPoint presentations and clinical case presentations.
Teaching materials provided to the students.
In accordance with the Manifesto of Studies for the AY 2020-2021 (page 12): "Teaching will be delivered simultaneously both face to face and online, thus outlining mixed teaching that can be enjoyed in university classrooms but at the same time also at a distance. At the beginning of the semester, the student will opt for face-to-face or remote teaching, the choice will be binding for the entire semester. If the number of students exceeds the capacity of the classrooms, based on government provisions on health matters to combat the Covid-19 pandemic, access to the educational facilities will be regulated through a shift system that will be communicated in due time to the interested students ".

Verification of learning

In the first session after the course, the final exam of the course is based on the evaluation of a written test with multiple choice answers and then an oral exam with the course teachers.
Written test: the student will have to answer 75 multiple choice questions on program topics. Each question is evaluated with a score of 1 if correct, -0.20 if wrong, 0 if not answered. The test will last 75 minutes.
Oral exam: the student will have to answer open-ended questions on different topics of the program.
In both cases the final grade is expressed out of thirty. The test is passed if at least the mark of 18/30 is achieved.
The student will have to discuss the topics proposed by the teacher. The knowledge of the topics of the course, the ability to link different topics, the ability to express, the use of appropriate terminology, the ability to synthesize are assessed.
The final grade considers:
Quality of knowledge, skills, competences possessed and / or manifested:
appropriateness, correctness and congruence of knowledge, skills and competences
Communicative skills:
a) Expressive capacity
b) Appropriate use of the specific language of the discipline
c) Logical skills and consequentiality in the connection of contents
e) Ability to connect different topics by finding common points and establishing a coherent general design, that is, taking care of the structure, organization and logical connections of the expository discourse
f) Ability to synthesize
The judgment can be:
a) Sufficient (from 18 to 20/30)
The candidate demonstrates few acquired notions, superficial level, many gaps, modest expressive skills, but sufficient to support a coherent dialogue; logical skills and consequentiality in connecting elementary level arguments; poor synthesis and graphic expression skills; poor interaction with the teacher during the interview.
b) Fair (21 to 23)
The candidate demonstrates a fair acquisition of notions, but little in-depth, few gaps; expressive skills more than sufficient to support a coherent dialogue; acceptable command of scientific language; logical skills and consequentiality in the connection of topics of moderate complexity; more than enough capacity for synthesis and graphic expression.
c) Good (from 24 to 26)
The candidate demonstrates a rather broad knowledge base, moderate in-depth study, with small gaps; satisfactory expressive skills and significant command of scientific language; dialogic ability and critical spirit well noticeable; good synthesis skills and more than acceptable graphic expression skills.
d) Distinguished (from 27 to 29)
The candidate demonstrates a very extensive knowledge base, well studied, with marginal gaps; remarkable expressive skills and high command of scientific language; remarkable dialogic ability, good competence and relevant aptitude for logical synthesis; high capacity for synthesis and graphic expression.
e) Very Good (30)
The candidate demonstrates a very extensive and in-depth knowledge base, any irrelevant gaps; high expressive skills and high command of scientific language; excellent dialogue skills, strong aptitude for making connections between different topics; excellent ability to synthesize and great familiarity with graphic expression.
Honors are attributed to candidates clearly above the average, and whose possible notional, expressive, conceptual or logical limits are, on the whole, completely irrelevant.
The final mark is obtained by averaging the results of the questions.


•Antonozzi e Gulletta, Medicina di Laboratorio , Ed. Piccin
•Federici: ”Medicina di Laboratorio” Ed. Mcgraw-Hill
•Prof. Atzori: lezioni su Moodle
•Cevenini. Microbiologia Clinica. Piccin
•Mims et al. Microbiologia Clinica. EMSI
•Sherris - Microbiologia Medica (parte Microbiologia Clinica). EMSI

More Information

• Prof. Aldo Manzin (, Dipartimento Scienze Biomediche, Policlinico Universitario Monserrato (tel.:070.675-4067)
• Prof. Luigi Atzori,, (sito WEB) , Dipartimento Scienze Biomediche, Blocco A, cittadella Universitaria Monserrato (CA) (tel.070675-8390)
• Prof. Valeria Ruggiero (, Dipartimento Scienze Mediche, Policlinico Universitario - Monserrato (CA) (070675-4240)
Prof Corrado Serra (, Dipartimento Scienze Mediche, Policlinico Universitario - Monserrato (CA) (Tel. 070675-4685)
More news

Students can contact the teachers for appointment by e-mail any time.
Date of exams: see web page of the medical faculty

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