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First Semester 
Teaching style
Lingua Insegnamento

Informazioni aggiuntive

Course Curriculum CFU Length(h)
[50/22]  PHARMACY [22/00 - Ord. 2014]  PERCORSO COMUNE 6 48


The objective of the course of Pharmacotherapy and Phytotherapy, is to have the student able to identify the rational therapy of the main disorders that can be diagnosed in men. The student will have to acquire the knowledge of symptomatology, physiopathology, clinical features of the main disorders. The student will have to know the drugs used for the therapy of each illness. He will need to know the mechanism of action, the route of administration, the main side effects and interactions of the drug used. At the end of the course the student will have acquired the basic knowledge for the use of drugs in each specific therapy. The student will have to possess suitable communicative skills, and the ability to use the appropriate terminology in describing the features of the illness and the effect of drug used.


In the part of Pharmacotherapy of this course, will be included the subjects of Pharmacotherapy that have not been considered in the course Pharmacotherapy of 8 CFU. Here is the summary of these subjects. In particular, the following will be treated: Integration to pharmacotherapy for disorders affecting the CNS and in particular psychosis, depression, insomnia, and Parkinson's (0.5 CFU),
COAGULATION disorders (0.5 ECTS): pathways and factors involved in coagulation. Fibrinolysis and factors involved. Anticoagulant drugs: heparin, warfarin, thrombin inhibitors with respective mechanism of action and adverse effects. Antiplatelet drugs and fibrinolytic drugs.
Pharmacotherapy of DIABETES (0.5 ECTS): Mechanisms related to the regulation of blood glucose levels. Role of insulin and glucagon. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Diagnosis and therapy. Types of insulin and its administration. Secretagogue drugs, Biguanides, Thiazolidinediones, DPP-4 inhibitors, GLP-1 receptor agonists, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, amyl analogues. IMMUNOPHARMACOTHERAPY (0.5 ECTS): General information on the main diseases affecting the immune system. Immunosuppressant drugs: glucocorticoids, calcineurin inhibitors, tacrolimus, cyclosporine. Antiproliferative and antimetabolic drugs: sirolimus, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil. Biological immunosuppression: antibodies and fusion proteins. Monoclonal antibodies. Inhibitors of interleukin action. INTESTINAL INFLAMMATORY DISORDER Therapy (0.25 CFU): Therapy for Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Mesalazine, glucocorticoids, immunosuppressants, methotetraxate, cyclosporine, biological therapy. ENDOCRINE DISORDER Therapy (1 CFU). Endocrine system pathologies. Pharmacotherapy for hyperprolactinemia (bromocriptine and cabergoline). Therapy for the alteration of the release of growth hormone (somatostatin, ocreotide, pegvisoant. Thyroiditis and treatment of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. Female sex hormones, and use of their analogues. Preparations based on estrogen, concept of SERM. Tamoxifen, Raloxifene, Clomifene, Fulvestrant. Progestrinic, antiprogestrinic, mifepristone. Hormone therapy in the treatment for osteoporosis. Ovarian cycle and contraception. Medicines for fertility. Pharmacotherapy of OCULAR DISORDERS (0.75CFU) Dry conjunctivitis of prostate glaucagoma: analogues , beta blockers, alpha agonists, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, cholinergic agonists. Therapy of dacryoadenitis, dacryocystitis, stye, blepharitis. Therapy of allergic, viral and bacterial conjunctivitis: antagonists anti H1, inhibitors of mast cell activation. Uveitis: cholinergic antagonists. alpha-adrenergic agents. Use of glucocorticoids, NSAIDs and immunosuppressants in the therapy of ocular disorders. The contents of PHYTOTERAPY for a total of 2 CFU will be as follows: CNS acting preparations: Melissa, Valerian, Chamomile, Passionflower, Escholtzia, Piper methysticum, Hypericum. ENDOCRINE ACTING: Agnocasto (lilac chastetree), Cimicifuga racemosa, Dioscorea villosa, Glycine Soya, Serenoa, Pigeum. IMMUNE SYSTEM ACTING Aloe vera: ADAPTOGENS: Ginseng, eleuterococco. GASTROINTESTINAL APPARATUS: Cynara scolimus, Sylibum marianum. "

Teaching Methods

At the end of the course the student will have acquired the basic knowledge about the diseases illustrated in the lessons and the therapies that can be used for them. The final exam to which the student will undergo, will allow to evaluate the communication capacity achieved by the student through the evaluation of the use of adequate terminology in describing: a) the characteristics of at least two of the diseases treated, the therapies foreseen for the same diseases , the routes of administration, the mechanisms of action of the drugs used, the side and adverse effects, any interactions with other drugs taken simultaneously.

Verification of learning

Learning will be tested by an oral test at the end of the course. Alternatively, students can be tested on the full program (syllabus) in one single exam session. The final grade will be established on the bases of
a) general knowledge of contents on disorders, therapy an drugs, but also ability to explain the rationale of the use for the description of the disorder and of the therapy chosen. b) Exposition ability, use of a proper and synthetic language.
The final evaluation can be
a) Satisfactory/Acceptable standard (18 to 23/30) when the candidate shows to possess a sufficient grade of knowledge that allows him to express coherent conclusions, although the student has been struggling to reach the conclusions.
c) Good/Exceeds acceptable standard (from 24 to 27/30)
The candidate shows to possess an almost complete grade of knowledge that allows him to express coherent conclusions in an ordered and clear exposition, although the student can be uncertain about details.
c) Excellent/standard of excellence (from 28 to 30/30)
The candidate shows to possess a complete grade of knowledge that allows him to express coherent conclusions synthetically in an ordered and very clear exposition, reach of detail and logic conclusions.
Laude will be given to candidates really above standard levels, who shows a full grade of knowledge of the material of the course but also possesses a level of knowledge acquired through updated scientific journals.


Hitner and Nagle, Principi di Farmacologia, Classificazione interazioni, indicazioni cliniche Zanichelli. Goodman and Gilman, le basi farmacologiche della terapia, undicesima edizione Zanichelli. Hitner and Nagle, Principi di Farmacologia, Classificazione interazioni, indicazioni cliniche Zanichelli. Annunziato-Di Renzo, Trattato di Farmacologia Idelson-Gnocchi.
Fitoterapia Una prospettiva psicobiologica A.M. Bianchi - Idelson-Gnocchi
Fitoterapia razionale Schultz, Hansel, Tyler - Mattioli

More Information

As a tool to support teaching, students can take advantage of supplementary material and lesson slides (downloadable from the teaching site). Students will be able to take advantage of the necessary information / clarifications / explanations, after contacting the teacher ("A copy of the slides presented can be requested by students. ""To meet specific educational needs related to the COVID-19 epidemiological situation, it will be likely that a part of the teaching will be delireved by web platforms. The lessons that will be given in presence will be recorded and the live streaming lessons or recordings there will be available online.
The module does not include exercises or ongoing tests. """

Questionnaire and social

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