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First Semester 
Teaching style
Lingua Insegnamento

Informazioni aggiuntive

Course Curriculum CFU Length(h)
[60/58]  CHEMISTRY [58/00 - Ord. 2017]  PERCORSO COMUNE 6 68


The general Chemistry Laboratory has the following aims:
1) give a basis of stoichiometry in order to predict the evolution of a generic chimica reaction;
2) empirically verify the concepts developed in the General Chemistry course and stimulate the sense of criticism when analysing the experimental results;
3) teach the correct behaviour to keep in a chemical laboratory.
At the end of the course the students will be able to:
1) write and balance a chemical reaction (metathesis, acid-base, redox, precipitation) and perform stoichiometric calculations to determine the quantities of reagents and products;
2) evaluate the effect of changing the experimental conditions on the chemical equilibrium;
3) empirically determine the acidity of a solution, the solubility of a given salt, the potential of a galvanic cell, predict and verify the course of acid-base, hydrolysis redox and precipitation reactions.
The students will learn:
1) manual ability in using simple equipments, chimica reagents and glasswares normally presnt in a chemical laboratory;
2) intellectual autonomy and practise in conducting a chemical experiment;
3) to work in group.


It is essential to have the mathematical skills acquired in high school as the algebra of fractions, logarithms and exponential (power) equations of 1st and 2nd grade and the graphical representation of simple functions on the Cartesian plane.


Theory and Stoichiometry calculations
Dimensions and system of units. Significant digits. Scientific notation. Atom and atomic weight. Compounds, molecole and ions. Molecular formula and molecular weight. Mole and molar mass. Chemical formula empiric and molecular. Nomenclature of inorganic compounds. Chemical equations. Balance of chemical equations. Stoichiometric calcuations of moles and masses. Limiting reagent. Reaction yields. Solutions and concentrations. Acids and Bases. Redox reactions and balance. Ideal gases. Chemical equilibrium in gas and in water. Le Châtelier and reaction quotient. Acid-base equilibria: autoprotolisys of water; pH; salts hydrolisis; buffers; acid-base titrations (hints). Solubility equilibrium: solubility and Kps; prediction of precipitation; common-ion effect, pH effect, temperature effect. Electrochemistry: electrochemical series; galvanic cells.
Laboratory techniques
Safety in the lab. Misures of weigth, volume, temperature.
Laboratory practice
Prediction and recognition of metathesis and redox reactions (the aim of the experiment is to learn to write and balance metathesis and redox reactions; learn how to deal with common inorganic salts and describe the changes observed during the reaction in solution; predict and recognize the product of the reactions as precipitates or gas).
Preparations of solution at exact concentration (use of volumetric flasks and pipettes, dilutions, use of scales).
Properties of the systems in equilibrium (the aim of the experiment is to learn how to apply the Le Chatelier principle on three types of reactions, acid-base, precipitation and complexation; to understand the effect of the variation of concentration of reagents or products and temperature).
Acids and bases (the aim of the experiment is to learn how to deal with pH indicators, perform a series of hydrolysis reactions, measure the pH with test paper, prepare a buffer solution and study its reactivity).
Precipitation reactions (the aim of the experiment is to understand how the solubility equilibria are influenced by changes in the pH, temperature and common-ion effect).
The electrochemical series: metals, hydrogen, the Ag+/Ag couple 8the aim of the experiment is to predict part of the electrochemical series on the base of experimental observations).

Teaching Methods

Students are expected to attend lectures and to self-assess their learning progress in the subjects dealt with, by carrying out the related exercises. They are expected to take part in a weekly tutorial. Moreover students will take advantage in following during the same semester the Course ol Chemistry Lab, where the experimental part and stoichiometric calculation will help in better understanding General Chemistry. For the purpose of lectures, multimedia tools will be used (computer, projector, film and animated simulations), traditional systems (heuristic lesson, blackboard and chalk) and participatory teaching (brainstorming, problem solving, cooperative learning).
In the case of pandemic emergency COVID-19, lectures could be given also via web streaming. For the same reason, indoor and outdoor practicals could be set on online/streaming platforms.

Verification of learning

The laboratory part will be evaluated by two stochiometry written tests during the semester with exclusion (students must obtain at least a mark of 18/30 on the first test to attend the second) and by a written test on the lab practice. The final exam will be a written test of stoichiometry.
Consequently, the judgment can be:

a) Sufficient (from 18 to 20/30)
The candidate demonstrates little acquisition of theoretical knowledge, superficial level, many gaps. Modest communicative abilities, but still sufficient to support a coherent dialogue, logical capacity and consequentiality in fitting the subjects of elementary level; poor capacity of synthesis and rather stunted ability of graphical expression, scanty interaction with the teacher during the interview.

b) Moderate (21 to 23)
The applicant demonstrates a moderate acquisition of knowledge but lack of expatiation, a few gaps; communicative abilities more than sufficient to support a coherent dialogue; acceptable mastery of the scientific language, logical capacity and consequentiality in fitting the subjects of moderate complexity, good enough capacity of synthesis and acceptable ability of graphical expression.

c) Good (24 to 26)
The candidate demonstrates a rather large wealth of knowledge, moderate in-depth, with small gaps; satisfactory mastery of the communicative abilities and meaningful scientific language; dialogical ability and critical thinking well detectable, good capacity of synthesis and more than acceptable ability of graphical expression.

d) Outstanding (27 to 29)
The candidate demonstrates a very extensive wealth of notions, high in-depth, with marginal gaps; remarkable ability in communicating and high mastery of scientific language; remarkable dialogical capacity, good competence and relevant aptitude for logical synthesis, high capacity of synthesis and graphical expression.

e) Excellent (30)
The candidate demonstrates a wealth of very extensive and in-depth knowledge, irrelevant gaps, high capacity and high mastery in communicating through the scientific language; excellent dialogical ability and marked aptitude to make connections among different subjects, excellent ability to synthesize and very familiar with the graphical expression.

The praise is attributed to the candidates clearly above average, and whose notional, expressive, conceptual, logical limits, if any, as a whole are completely irrelevant.


V. Fusi, L. Giorgi, V. Lippolis, N. Zaccheroni "CHIMICA: principi generali con esercizi", (Idelson-Gnocchi)
Peloso Armando, Demartin Francesco, “Esercizi numerici di Chimica generale”, Edizioni Libreria Progetto Padova, 2010.
Lausarot Paola, Vaglio Gian Angelo, "Stechiometria per la chimica generale", Piccin, 2015

More Information

Slides and exercises will be uploaded on the website of the professor

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