40/297 - MORPHOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL BASIS LIFE
Academic Year 2021/2022
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CRISTINA MAXIA (Tit.)
- Teaching style
- Lingua Insegnamento
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At the end of the course the student should:
• know the structural organization of the human body at the microscopic and macroscopic levels (cells, tissues, organs, systems), and the main clinical and functional applications
• acquire basic knowledge on the normal functioning of the body to understand any pathological changes in order to make the student aware of health interventions required in the professional performance.
• develop professional communication skills by the use of correct terminology and an organized and comprehensible description.
Knowledge and understanding: the student has to acquire basic knowledge on the shape and structure of the human body at macroscopic and microscopic level.
Application capabilities: The student will be able to operate a systematization of knowledge of human anatomy through the study, in pairs or in small groups, of teaching anatomical materials.
Making judgements: Upon completion of this course the student has to reach independent judgment on the biological mechanisms that lead to structural changes of organs and anatomical regions. Judgement autonomy of the student will be encouraged throughout the course.
Communication skills: The student should acquire the ability to provide proper definitions on the topography and the organizational level of the different organs and systems of the human body, using a specific language (nomenclature and terminology).
Learning skills: The student should develop a method of study and analytical skills indispensable to interpret and discuss the issues that will arise in future study and career.
KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING: the course allows the student to acquire the theoretical and operational skills in the physiology of organ systems and functional mechanisms of control with particular reference to morpho-functional, molecular and cellular aspects.
APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING: the student must be able to apply the General knowledge of cell biology and histology, necessary for understanding physiological and pathological processes; in order to develop a professional approach to his/her work and possess adequate skills to devise and sustain proper lines of reasoning aimed at solving problems.
MAKING JUDGEMENTS: the course aims at stimulating the objective assessment of teaching by constantly proposing a comparison between the theoretical content offered during the lectures and the acquisition thereof through self-study using the recommended texts and teaching materials provided.
COMMUNICATION SKILLS: ability to describe whit an essential, clear, complete and correct terminology the processes and the molecules involved in the functional mechanisms of of various organs and systems of the human body.
LEARNING SKILLS: acquisition of knowledge necessary to undertake further studies with a high degree of autonomy.
EXPECTED COMPETENCES: development of professional communication skills through the use of proper terminology and an organized and comprehensible description useful not only for passing the examination, but also for the development of an appropriate relationship with healthcare staff and other people (patients, relatives, etc.) whom the student comes into contact during its internship.
The expertise requested to better understand the subjects of the course includes:
- basic knowledge of physics, inorganic and organic chemistry
- cellular biology
General anatomy: structural organization of the human body. Anatomical position, anatomical terminology, directional terms, planes of the body, body cavities.
The skeletal system.
Osteology: Bone structure, classification. Axial and appendicular skeleton
Joints: Classification of joints. Sinovial joints, classification and movements.
Muscular system: Interactions of skeletal muscles, their fascicle, arrangement, and their lever systems. General overview on the muscles of the head, neck, back, thorax, abdominal wall, upper and lower limbs. Diaphragm. Perineum.
Splanchnology: It is mandatory to know general morphology, position and relations, blood supply, structure and morpho-functional references of each organ.
The Cardiovasculas System: heart and pericardium. Structure and function of blood vessels. Systemic and pulmonary circulation: main arteries and veins.
The Lymphatic System: overview
The Endocrine System: overview
The Respiratory System: nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses, larynx, thrachea and bronchi, lungs, pleurae.
The Digestive System: mouth, pharynx, esophagus stomach, small and large intestines, salivary glands, liver and pancreas. Peritoneum.
The Urinary System: kidney, ureters, urinary bladder, male and female urethra.
The Female Reproductive System: ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, overview about the external genital organs.
The Male Reproductive System: testes, ducts system, accessory glands, penis.
Neuroanatomy: The Central Nervous System: basic structure and function. Spinal cord: ascending and descending tracts. Brain Stem, cerebellum, diencephalon. Cerebrum: general overview about external and internal configuration, the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia and system of capsules, cortical areas.
Organs of Sense: general overview
The peripheral nervous system: general overview about cranial and spinal nerves
The Autonomic Nervous System: general overview about the sympathetic and parasympathetic system.
Cellular physiology: membrane transport, signal transduction. Homeostasis.
Nervous system: Neurons and glial cells. Membrane channels. Bioelectric potentials. Electrical and chemical synapses. Functional organization of the nervous system. Reflexes and superior nervous functions. Receptors and sensory systems. Autonomic nervous system. Motor control.
Endocrine System and Chemical Messengers: synthesis, release, transport and mechanisms of action of Hormones. Effects on target cells. Control of hormone release.
Muscle function: Properties of skeletal smooth and cardiac muscle, and control mechanisms. Molecular events of the muscle contraction.
Blood: blood and plasma volume, composition and functions.
Cardio-circulatory function: The heart: the common and conduction myocardium functions, cardiac cycle, cardiac output and its regulation. The circulatory system: the systemic circulation and pulmonary circulation. Blood circulation in the various circulatory districts and its regulation.
Respiratory function: Functions of the airways. Respiratory mechanic and pulmonary ventilation. Nervous and chemical control of ventilation. Alveolar air. Gas exchange in the lungs and in tissues. Transport of blood gases.
Gastro-intestinal function: Motility, Secretion, Digestion and absorption, Nervous and hormonal control.
Renal function: Glomerular ultrafiltration, reabsorption, secretion, excretion. Hydro-saline and Acid-base balances. Neuro-Humoral control of renal function. Endocrine function of the kidney.
Nutrition physiology: Basal metabolism. Macronutriens and micronutriens.
Teaching will be supplied by classroom lectures and/or at distance lessons, aiming to ensure the access in an innovative and inclusive way, following the directions of the Manifesto Generale degli Studi of the University of Cagliari for the academic year 2021/22.
Combination of traditional lessons and interactive laboratory learning.
Classroom discussions requested by the teacher, aimed at understanding the topics covered and managing doubts and perplexities about the information acquired.
Anatomy (5 CFU)
The course consists in lectures and practice with anatomical models movable and removable, bones and skeleton.
Methods and techniques
Methods and techniques of teaching interaction:
Classroom discussion solicited by the teacher;
Citations and references to the normal and pathological conditions;
Combination of lectures and interactive classroom discussion using computers and a variety of media.
Methods and techniques of interaction by distance teaching
Teacher and student interaction: Communication by e-mail;
Interaction regarding topics: .pdf of the lessons accessible to the student.
Anatomical models and bone available at the Macroscopic Anatomy classroom; anatomy atlases and books available at the Central Library Area Biomedical; iconographic material used for lectures, by request to the teacher.
Physiology (3 CFU)
For maximum teaching effectiveness in general physiology, the teacher uses high quality illustrations and colour photographs, easy to interpret diagrams, flowcharts to represent intuitively cause-effect relationships. At the end of each lesson the basic concepts discussed in the lesson are summarized.
Verification of learning
Oral evaluation of:
• acquisition of knowledge
• disciplinary language knowledge
• ability to relate concepts and knowledge
• presentation skills
The evaluation is expressed in thirtieths, starting from 18/30 given when the theoretical knowledge is at least elementary, up to 30/30 cum laude, as the knowledge is excellent.
Students should sign up for examination by ESSE3 platform.
Anatomia dell’Uomo. Ambrosi G. et al. Edi-Ermes
Anatomia Umana - Fondamenti. Barbatelli G et al. Edi-Ermes
Anatomia Umana. Saladin KS. Piccin
Anatomia Umana. Martini, Tallitsch, Nath. Edises
Anatomia Umana. Approccio integrato tra struttura e funzione. Patton, Thibodeau. EDRA
Fisiologia Umana Approccio integrato- Silverthorn – Pearson editore
Fondamenti di Anatomia e Fisiologia dell’uomo, Autori: Martini, Nath. Edises
Principi di Fisiologia. Autori: Zocchi et al.. Edises
Cristina Maxia (Anatomia) firstname.lastname@example.org, Tel 0706754005.
Dip. di Scienze Biomediche, Sez. di Citomorfologia,
Cittadella Universitaria di Monserrato.
Patrizia Muroni (Fisiologia) email@example.com, Tel 0706754130.
Dip. di Scienze Biomediche, Sez. di Fisiologia,
Cittadella Universitaria di Monserrato.
Student reception: appointment by email