About the Region and the City: a key of the Mediterranean Sea
Climate in Sardinia is typical of the Mediterranean with mild winters and warm, dry summers; this is due to the city’s latitude. Rainfall is concentrated in autumn and winter, especially in the mountainous areas. Spring can be unpredictable, rainy and dry, changing from year to year, whilst summers are dry, generally with no rainfall at all. Sardinia’s climate is also influenced by winds from Africa and the northwest. The Mistral, coming from northwest, gives hot summers but is cold in winter. The warm Sirocco winds coming from Africa determine the mild winters but contribute to the evaporation of water and the consequent dryness of the summers.
Sardinia is the second biggest island in the Mediterranean with a total surface area of 24,090 km2, 1,850 km of coastline and a little over 1,600,000 inhabitants. It is located in the middle of the western Mediterranean about 187 km from the Italian peninsula.
Its territory is predominantly made up of hills and highlands, whilst its central and eastern areas are mountainous with the highest peak measuring 1,834 m.
The coasts, the northwest and the southwest are characterised by plains, a variety of landscapes such as beaches, sand dunes, cliffs and bays. Due to its geo-morphological characteristics, Sardinia has some the most varied, original, natural and climatic ecosystems among the Italian regions.
Due to its central position in the Mediterranean, Sardinia has been a land of conquest for many people coming from surrounding countries and while it is still not certain whether it was inhabited in the Palaeolithic period, it has certainly been inhabited since the Neolithic period.
The archaeological remains scattered all over the island reveal some unique characteristics of a distinct history. In fact, the island is rich in Nuraghe remains, stone constructions tholos built by the original inhabitants. Since then, Sardinia has been conquered by Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Romans, Vandals, Byzantines, Pisans, Genoese, Spanish, and finally by the Piedmontese Savoy Dukes when they were in power.
This was also the case of other regions of northern Italy. Thus, northern Italy and the Kingdom of Sardinia became part of the new-born monarchic country, Italy, in 1861. In 1948, when the new Constitution of the Republic of Italy became effective, Sardinia was granted a special statute of autonomy that gave the regional government legislative power on topics such as administration, building policy, transport, water management, mines and quarries, tourism, libraries and museums.
Sardinians are the largest ethnic minority of Italy and their language, Sardinian, which has many variations, has been officially recognised as a language by the Italian Government since 1999.
Historically, Sardinian economy has been based on agriculture, farming and fishing and on the exploitation of its mineral resources since the prehistoric period. The last 10 – 15 years saw a rise of entrepreneurship and local businesses especially in the tourism sector and in the agro-food industry.
Cagliari is the capital, the main cultural centre of Sardinia and the most populated with about 160,000 inhabitants. It is located in the middle of the Gulf of Angels, across the southern slope of Sardinia. Numerous open air archaeological sites and unspoilt natural environments allow for unusual routes, rich in charm and beauty and vary between art and nature. Every season, thanks to its particularly mild weather, Cagliari allows visitors the chance to discover its architecture, archaeology and monuments, its ancient history as well as an opportunity to discover the influences that the various people who have inhabited
Cagliari have had on the town throughout its history.
Cagliari is “the city of the sun” but above all “the city of the sea”. From the surrounding hills it is possible to admire the multicoloured sea, which merges with the city to produce a unique panorama. With some of the most beautiful beaches in the world, spring and summer offers the chance to take advantage of all the beach has to offer and a chance to discover a natural environment that is still very much unspoilt. Cagliari has a lot to offer visitors who want to enjoy the sun, the sea and countryside with the opportunity to experience a uniquely rich culture.
For more information about Sardinia visit the website: www.sardegnaturismo.it/en/